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Effect of irradiation on the survival and susceptibility of female Anopheles arabiensis to natural isolates of Plasmodium falciparum

Abstract : Background: The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a vector control strategy relying on the mass release of sterile males into wild vector populations. Current sex separation techniques are not fully efficient and could lead to the release of a small proportion of females. It is therefore important to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the ability of released females to transmit pathogens. This study aimed to assess the effect of irradiation on the survival and competence of Anopheles arabiensis females for Plasmodium falciparum in laboratory conditions. Methods: Pupae were irradiated at 95 Gy of gamma-rays, and emerging females were challenged with one of 14 natural isolates of P. falciparum. Seven days post-blood meal (dpbm), irradiated and unirradiated-control females were dissected to assess the presence of oocysts, using 8 parasite isolates. On 14 dpbm, sporozoite dissemination in the head/thorax was also examined, using 10 parasites isolates including 4 in common with the 7 dpbm dissection (oocyst data). The survivorship of irradiated and unirradiated-control mosquitoes was monitored. Results: Overall, irradiation reduced the proportion of mosquitoes infected with the oocyst stages by 17% but this effect was highly inconsistent among parasite isolates. Secondly, there was no significant effect of irradiation on the number of developing oocysts. Thirdly, there was no significant difference in both the sporozoite infection rate and load between the irradiated and unirradiated-control mosquitoes. Fourthly, irradiation had varying effects on female survival with either a negative effect or no effect. Conclusions: The effect of irradiation on mosquito competence strongly varied among parasite isolates. Because of such isolate variability and, the fact that different parasite isolates were used to collect oocyst and sporozoite data, the irradiation-mediated reduction of oocyst prevalence was not confirmed for the sporozoite stages. Our data indicate that irradiated female An. arabiensis could contribute to malaria transmission, and highlight the need for perfect sex-ing tools, which would prevent the release of females as part of SIT programmes.
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https://hal.umontpellier.fr/hal-02992966
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Soumis le : vendredi 6 novembre 2020 - 15:50:36
Dernière modification le : jeudi 11 février 2021 - 15:00:11
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Edwige Guissou, Serge Poda, Domombabele de Sales Hien, Serge Yerbanga, Dari Frédéric Da, et al.. Effect of irradiation on the survival and susceptibility of female Anopheles arabiensis to natural isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. Parasites & Vectors, 2020, 13, pp.266. ⟨10.1186/s13071-020-04135-w⟩. ⟨hal-02992966⟩

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