UNDERSTANDING SPORT TEACHER'S RELATIONSHIP TO CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL TRAINING: THE CASE OF FRENCH JUDO EDUCATORS

Abstract : This communication presents some results of a research project that examines associative sport teachers' perspectives about continuous professional training in the context of Judo local sport clubs and community organisations. The theoretical framework of this study is praxeological (Ardoino, 1980; Lhotellier & St-Arnaud, 1994). It is based on works that focus on the teaching profession and which lead to consider that difficulties are at the centre of the teaching work (Hélou & Lantheaume, 2008) with a satisfaction encountered directly related to the perspectives of perseverance and commitment in the occupation (Kamanzi, Tardif, & Lessard, 2015). Research also highlights the particularities of working in the sports sector. First, professional training in this context possesses it own specificities. As quoted by Cushion & alii. (2003), research demonstrated that for coaches, the primary sources of knowledge is (personal) experience and the observation of other coaches. For Monfette, Grenier, & Gosselin (2015), internships are particular moments of training which constitute decisive experiences in physical education teacher professional career. Secondly, the working environment also has a particular identity. The management rules and the profession practice conditionsare mentioned in particular when it comes to the difficulty of recruiting sports educators. Marsault & alii. (2016) indicate for instance, that out of 21,612 recruitments reported in 2014, 43% were deemed difficult by the employer (versus 35.7% on average): the interweaving of work and leisure time is a major constraint that employees take into account according to their personal dispositions, and also of contextual factors. De facto, personal dispositions are another key particularity. Thus, in an environment where volunteering dominates, to exist professionally proves problematic. Falcoz & Walter (2009) show that one the blurring of the boundaries between voluntary work and paid work is a key figure of working in a sports club. The imperative of the "gift" is essential to all,even if, as in France, educators are recruited on the basis of skills qualified by the possession of the adequate certificate. Slimani (2014) analyses what he terms an "economy of passion" to reflect the place of social and emotional conditions in equestrian-sports clubs' professional training and employment. In the world of tennis, Chifflet & Rundstadler (2002) prove as for them, that tennis instructors present different roles depending on where they are in the club spaces, their behaviours allowing them to reply to associative, federalism and professional purposes. The existing literature on martial arts is in line with the characteristics of the teaching profession described above. For instance, Julhe & Haschar-Noé (2010) shed light on the way an initial investment in a serious hobby is linked to access to a profession perceived in terms of vocation. Data enabled them to obtain concrete information about access and exercise of the profession, testifying notably of the necessity to mobilize social resources and to look beyond the technical mastering of their activity. In that respect Julhe and Haschar-Noé precise that job stabilization require to built upon skills acquired during sport socialisation and self-taught skills, as the professional salaried or independent worker must become self-employed entrepreneur. The authors of the current presentation have realized a two years research project aimed at understanding key characteristics of Judo teachers' identity and relation to the professional activity in the context of societal changes. The analyses under publications have suggested interest for further developments focussing on continuous training. The resulting research objective is to provide valuable information to put into perspective the professional development and learning of Judo educators. The research questions raised relate to a better understanding of teachers' needs and expectations relating to continuous training activities taking into account personal characteristics and working environment. Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used The methodology is based on the premise that teachers' views on these issues are important for a number of reasons. As noted by Murray (2011), it is democratically legitimate to consult the main stakeholders of the activity, and at the same time to benefit from a particularly informed analysis of these issues (Lhotellier & St-Arnaud, 1994).  665 Judo teachers from 20 to over 66 from France were questioned through an online survey of country-level. The survey consists of a questionnaire built upon a previous phase of the research. The 188 items deal with the features of teaching activity (including status, income, perception of the activity in connection with social and family life, etc.), context of activity (including area, duration of practice, size of the community, etc.), personal training (including perception of the level of preparation, of training opportunities and of difficulties to accomplish the tasks, etc.) and personal information (ie. gender, familial status, etc.). The French Federation of Judo and Associated Disciplines (FFJDA) has advertised the survey to its teaching members. The questionnaire which was presented as a join project involving the FFDJA and the research laboratory has been made available online for 2 months (from September to November 2018).  Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings Data analysis is still in process. Teacher's comments about initial and continuous training are analysed in the light of their personal characteristics and of the features of their activity.  The first observations would suggest a mixed perception of readiness to the activity and the degree of satisfaction regarding this preparation. For instance, half of the respondents thought they were "rather" well prepared to practice teaching (51%), almost 40 "quite" and less than 6% "not really".  The level readiness appears to vary with categories of needs.   Elsewhere, teachers tend to consider themselves to be "rather" well-trained (respectively 54%, 47% and 51%, Khi2 very significant) whatever is the broad context of exercise (ie. rural, urban or peri-urban area). The observation of the level of satisfaction of the practitioners would be consistent with Tardif results (ibid.): the more teachers are satisfied with their teaching activity, the more they think they are "quite" well prepared for the job.  The data would also provide better understanding of the relationship to continuing education and its follow-up taking into consideration personal characteristics and contexts of exercise taking  into consideration the institutional environment (club, association, local community, school, university) or the hourly volume of  number of weekly hours of practice. Ultimately, this study opens ways towards a better connection between the practitioners and the continuous training offer: a more detailed and progressive adaptation of this offer in accordance with the particularities of the practitioners or a better information and communication to promote the current possibilities of training proposed by the stakeholders. It would also be interesting to discuss about the variables and the mechanisms implemented to support professional development, in a perspective of international comparison, by comparing our work with those that could be produced in countries. Such developments could provide theoretical and methodological intellectual enrichment.
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Soumis le : lundi 28 octobre 2019 - 22:10:40
Dernière modification le : vendredi 1 novembre 2019 - 01:28:20

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Philippe Gabriel, Céline Avenel, Sylvie Perez. UNDERSTANDING SPORT TEACHER'S RELATIONSHIP TO CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL TRAINING: THE CASE OF FRENCH JUDO EDUCATORS. ECER 2019, European Educational Research Association (EERA), Sep 2019, Hamburg, Germany. ⟨hal-02336536⟩

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