Contributions of cuticle permeability and enzyme detoxification to pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

Abstract : To tackle the problem of insecticide resistance, all resistance mechanisms need to be studied. This study investigated the involvement of the cuticle in pyrethroid resistance in a strain of Anopheles gambiae, MRS, free of kdr mutations. Bioassays revealed MRS to be resistant to pyrethroids and DDT, indicated by increasing knockdown times and resistance ratios. Moreover, biochemical analysis indicated that metabolic resistance based on enhanced CYP450 activity may also play a role. Insecticide penetration assays showed that there were significantly lower amounts of insecticide in the MRS strain than in the susceptible control. Analysis of the levels of the selected transcripts by qPCR showed that CYP6M2, a major pyrethroid metaboliser, CYP4G16, a gene implicated in resistance via its contribution to the biosynthesis of elevated epicuticular hydrocarbons that delay insecticide uptake, and the cuticle genes CPAP3-E and CPLCX1 were upregulated after insecticide exposure. Other metabolic (CYP6P3, GSTe2) and cuticle (CPLCG3, CPRs) genes were also constitutively upregulated. Microscopic analysis showed that the cuticle layers of the MRS strain were significantly thicker than those of the susceptible strain. This study allowed us to assess the contribution made by the cuticle and metabolic mechanisms to pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae without target-site mutations.
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Gildas Yahouédo, Fabrice Chandre, Marie Rossignol, Carole Ginibre, Vasileia Balabanidou, et al.. Contributions of cuticle permeability and enzyme detoxification to pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Scientific Reports, Nature Publishing Group, 2017, 7, pp.11091. ⟨10.1038/s41598-017-11357-z⟩. ⟨hal-02015216⟩

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