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Pré-Publication, Document De Travail Année : 2023

Integrating ecological feedbacks across scales and levels of organization


In ecosystems, species interact in various ways with other species, and with their local environment. In addition, ecosystems are coupled in space by diverse types of flows. From these links connecting different ecological entities can emerge circular pathways of indirect effects: feedback loops. This contributes to creating a nested set of ecological feedbacks operating at different organizational levels as well as spatial and temporal scales in ecological systems: species modifying and being affected by their local abiotic environment, demographic and behavioral feedbacks within populations and communities, and spatial feedbacks occurring at the landscape scale. Here, we review how ecological feedbacks vary in space and time, and discuss the emergent properties they generate such as species coexistence or the spatial heterogeneity and stability of ecological systems. With the aim of identifying similarities across scales, we identify the abiotic and biotic modulators that can change the sign and strength of feedback loops and show that these feedbacks can interact in space or time. Our review shows that despite acting at different scales and emerging from different processes, feedbacks generate similar macroscopic properties of ecological systems across levels of organization. Ultimately, our contribution emphasizes the need to integrate such feedbacks to improve our understanding of their joint effects on the dynamics, patterns, and stability of ecological systems.
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Dates et versions

hal-04311524 , version 1 (28-11-2023)





Benoît Pichon, Sonia Kefi, Nicolas Loeuille, Ismaël Lajaaiti, Isabelle Gounand. Integrating ecological feedbacks across scales and levels of organization. 2023. ⟨hal-04311524⟩
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