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Article Dans Une Revue Bioengineering Année : 2023

Allogenic Stem Cells Carried by Porous Silicon Scaffolds for Active Bone Regeneration In Vivo

Résumé

To date, bone regeneration techniques use many biomaterials for bone grafting with limited efficiencies. For this purpose, tissue engineering combining biomaterials and stem cells is an important avenue of development to improve bone regeneration. Among potentially usable non-toxic and bioresorbable scaffolds, porous silicon (pSi) is an interesting biomaterial for bone engineering. The possibility of modifying its surface can allow a better cellular adhesion as well as a control of its rate of resorption. Moreover, release of silicic acid upon resorption of its nanostructure has been previously proved to enhance stem cell osteodifferentiation by inducing calcium phosphate formation. In the present study, we used a rat tail model to experiment bone tissue engineering with a critical size defect. Two groups with five rats per group of male Wistar rats were used. In each rat, four vertebrae were used for biomaterial implantation. Randomized bone defects were filled with pSi particles alone or pSi particles carrying dental pulp stem cells (DPSC). Regeneration was evaluated in comparison to empty defect and defects filled with xenogenic bone substitute (Bio-Oss®). Fluorescence microscopy and SEM evaluations showed adhesion of DPSCs on pSi particles with cells exhibiting distribution throughout the biomaterial. Histological analyzes revealed the formation of a collagen network when the defects were filled with pSi, unlike the positive control using Bio-Oss®. Overall bone formation was objectivated with µCT analysis and showed a higher bone mineral density with pSi particles combining DPSC. Immunohistochemical assays confirmed the increased expression of bone markers (osteocalcin) when pSi particles carried DPSC. Surprisingly, no grafted cells remained in the regenerated area after one month of healing, even though the grafting of DPSC clearly increased bone regeneration for both bone marker expression and overall bone formation objectivated with µCT. In conclusion, our results show that the association of pSi with DPSCs in vivo leads to greater bone formation, compared to a pSi graft without DPSCs. Our results highlight the paracrine role of grafted stem cells by recruitment and stimulation of endogenous cells.

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Chimie
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hal-04181366 , version 1 (18-10-2023)

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Matthieu Renaud, Philippe Bousquet, Gerard Macias, Gael Rochefort, Jean-Olivier Durand, et al.. Allogenic Stem Cells Carried by Porous Silicon Scaffolds for Active Bone Regeneration In Vivo. Bioengineering, 2023, 10 (7), pp.852. ⟨10.3390/bioengineering10070852⟩. ⟨hal-04181366⟩
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