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Article Dans Une Revue European Urology Année : 2021

How Far Should We Explore Hypospadias? Next-generation Sequencing Applied to a Large Cohort of Hypospadiac Patients

Vuthy Ea
Anne Bergougnoux
  • Fonction : Auteur
Pascal Philibert
  • Fonction : Auteur
Nadège Servant-Fauconnet
  • Fonction : Auteur
Alice Faure
Jean Breaud
  • Fonction : Auteur
Laura Gaspari
  • Fonction : Auteur
Charles Sultan
  • Fonction : Auteur
Françoise Paris
  • Fonction : Auteur

Résumé

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is generally used for patients with severe disorders of sex development (DSD). However, NGS has not been applied extensively for patients with hypospadias only, and most affected children do not benefit from an etiological diagnosis. Objective: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of NGS for patients with hypospadias, regardless of severity. Design, setting, and participants: Prospective multicenter research included 293 children with glandular to penoscrotal hypospadias (no undescended testis and no micropenis). After excluding likely pathogenic androgen receptor (AR) variants by Sanger sequencing, an NGS panel tested 336 genes including unexplored candidates in 284 patients. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The rate of pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants was assessed using REVEL, ClinVar, and in-house tools (Captain-ACHAB, MobiCNV, and MobiDetails). Results and limitations: Likely pathogenic variants were identified in 16 (5.5%) patients with both Sanger sequencing and NGS taken into account. Some genes were related to DSD (AR, NR5A1, HSD17B3, and MAMLD1), but reverse phenotyping revealed two syndromic disorders with midline defects (MID1) and alteration in the retinoic acid signaling pathway (RARA). Coverage analysis revealed an 18q deletion. Identification of likely pathogenic variants increased with hypospadias severity. Other variants of unknown significance (VUSs) in genes implicated in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, Noonan syndrome, and genital tubercle development were also identified. Genetic study mainly focused on exonic variants, and most cases remain unexplained. Conclusions: NGS reveals minor forms of DSD, undiagnosed syndromes, or candidate rare variants in new genes, indicating that even patients with mild hypospadias benefit from advanced sequencing techniques. Early molecular diagnosis would help improve follow-up at puberty and medical counseling for initially undiagnosed syndromes. Future studies will improve the diagnosis by investigating the contribution of VUSs.
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hal-03624344 , version 1 (13-06-2022)

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Vuthy Ea, Anne Bergougnoux, Pascal Philibert, Nadège Servant-Fauconnet, Alice Faure, et al.. How Far Should We Explore Hypospadias? Next-generation Sequencing Applied to a Large Cohort of Hypospadiac Patients. European Urology, 2021, 79 (4), pp.507-515. ⟨10.1016/j.eururo.2020.12.036⟩. ⟨hal-03624344⟩

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