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Article Dans Une Revue Poultry Science Année : 2020

Characterization of viral, bacterial, and parasitic causes of disease in small-scale chicken flocks in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam

Résumé

In the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam, small-scale chicken farming is common. However, high levels of disease or mortality in such flocks impair eco- nomic development and challenge the livelihoods of many rural households. We investigated 61 diseased small-scale flocks (122 chickens) for evidence of infec- tion with 5 bacteria, 4 viruses, and helminths. Sero- logical profiles (ELISA) were also determined against 6 of these pathogens. The aims of this study were the following: (1) to investigate the prevalence of different pathogens and to compare the probability of detection of bacterial pathogens using PCR and culture; (2) to investigate the relationship between detection of or- ganisms in birds’ tissues and the observed morbidity and mortality, as well as their antibody profile; and (3) to characterize risk factors for infection with specific viral or bacterial pathogens. We used PCR to test for viral (viruses causing infectious bronchitis [IB], highly pathogenic avian influenza [HPAI], Newcastle disease, and infectious bursal disease [IBD]) and bacterial pathogens (Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Pas- teurella multocida, Avibacterium paragallinarum, and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale [ORT]). The latter two were also investigated in respiratory tissues by conventional culture. Colisepticemic Escherichia coli was investigated by liver or spleen culture. In 49 of 61 (80.3%) flocks, at least one bacterial or viral pathogen was detected, and in 29 (47.5%) flocks, more than one pathogen was detected. A. paragallinarum was detected in 62.3% flocks, followed by M. gallisepticum (26.2%), viruses causing IBD (24.6%) and IB (21.3%), septicemic E. coli (14.8%), ORT (13.1%), and HPAI viruses (4.9%). Of all flocks, 67.2% flocks were colonized by helminths. Mortality was highest among flocks infected with HPAI (100%, interquartile range [IQR]: 81.6– 100%) and lowest with flocks infected with ORT (5.3%, IQR: 1.1–9.0%). The results indicated slight agreement (kappa 0.167) between detection by PCR and culture for both A. paragallinarum and ORT, as well as be- tween the presence of cestodes and ORT infection (kappa 5 0.317). Control of A. paragallinarum, viruses causing HPAI, IBD, and IB, M. gallisepticum, and gastrointestinal helminths should be a priority in small- scale flocks.

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Dates et versions

hal-03412803 , version 1 (03-11-2021)

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Nguyen Thi Bich Van, Nguyen Thi Phuong Yen, Nguyen Thi Nhung, Nguyen Van Cuong, Bach Tuan Kiet, et al.. Characterization of viral, bacterial, and parasitic causes of disease in small-scale chicken flocks in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Poultry Science, 2020, 99, pp.783 - 790. ⟨10.1016/j.psj.2019.10.033⟩. ⟨hal-03412803⟩
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