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Evidence for adaptation from standing genetic variation on an antimicrobial peptide gene in the mussel Mytilus edulis.

Abstract : Genome scans of population differentiation identify candidate loci for adaptation but provide little information on how selection has influenced the genetic structure of these loci. Following a genome scan, we investigated the nature of the selection responsible for the outlying differentiation observed between populations of the marine mussel Mytilus edulis at a leucine/arginine polymorphism (L31R) in the antimicrobial peptide MGD2. We analysed DNA sequence polymorphisms, allele frequencies and population differentiation of polymorphisms closely linked to L31R, and pairwise and third-order linkage disequilibria. An outlying level of population differentiation was observed at L31R only, while no departure from panmixia was observed at linked loci surrounding L31R, as in most of the genome. Selection therefore seems to affect L31R directly. Three hypotheses can explain the lack of differentiation in the chromosomal region close to L31R: (i) hitchhiking has occurred but migration and recombination subsequently erased the signal, (ii) selection was weak enough and recombination strong enough to limit the hitchhiking effect to a very small chromosomal region or (iii) selection acted on a pre-existing polymorphism (i.e. standing variation) at linkage equilibrium with its background. Linkage equilibrium was observed between L31R and linked polymorphisms in every population analysed, as expected under the three hypotheses. However, linkage disequilibrium was observed in some populations between pairs of loci located upstream and downstream to L31R, generating a complex pattern of third-order linkage disequilibria which is best explained by the hypothesis of selection on a pre-existing polymorphism. We hypothesise that selection could be either balanced, maintaining alleles at different frequencies depending on the pathogen community encountered locally by mussels, or intermittent, resulting in sporadic fluctuations in allele frequency.
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Soumis le : lundi 23 novembre 2020 - 14:12:51
Dernière modification le : mercredi 17 novembre 2021 - 12:31:38

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Célia Gosset, Joana Do Nascimento, Marie-Thérèse Augé, Nicolas Bierne. Evidence for adaptation from standing genetic variation on an antimicrobial peptide gene in the mussel Mytilus edulis.. Molecular Ecology, Wiley, 2014, 23 (12), pp.3000-12. ⟨10.1111/mec.12784⟩. ⟨hal-03019544⟩



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