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Article dans une revue

Aspects génétiques et moléculaires des dystrophinopathies

Abstract : Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) are caused by mutations in the DMD gene that encodes the cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. Dystrophinopathies are inherited in an X-linked recessive manner. Due to the tremendous size of the gene (2.2 megabases), the DMD locus has a high spontaneous mutation rate, and one third of sporadic cases of DMD are due to a de novo mutation. There are seven tissue-specific promoters in the gene. The skeletal muscular transcript contains 79 exons and encode the full-length protein (427-kDa) located at the inner face of the sarcolemma of muscle fibers. DMD gene mutations are highly heterogeneous. Large rearrangements (deletions or duplications of one or more exons) are most frequently involved while point mutations account for 20 %-30 % of cases. A survey of current strategies of molecular diagnosis is presented here. In particular, the role of muscle biopsy (for dystrophin and RNA analyses) in the diagnosis of dystrophinopathies is discussed. In more than 90 % of cases, the clinical severity is correlated with the impact of the mutations on the reading frame and the expression of the dystrophin (absence or residual amount of mutated protein). Various mechanisms contribute to the exceptions. Besides the clinical interest for the patient, the identification of the mutation allows accurate genetic counseling in the familles, and is a necessary prerequisite for the inclusion of the patient in the genotype-based clinical trials.
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F. Leturcq, S. Tuffery-Giraud. Aspects génétiques et moléculaires des dystrophinopathies. Archives de Pédiatrie, Elsevier, 2015, 22 (12), pp.12S3-12S11. ⟨10.1016/S0929-693X(16)30002-1⟩. ⟨hal-02435124⟩



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