The conflict between adaptation and dispersal for maintaining biodiversity in changing environments

Abstract : Dispersal and adaptation both allow species to persist in changing environments. Yet, we have limited understanding of how these processes interact to affect species persistence, especially in diverse communities where biotic interactions greatly complicate responses to environmental change. Here we use a stochastic metacommunity model to demonstrate how dispersal and adaptation to environmental change independently and interactively contribute to biodiversity maintenance. Dispersal provides spatial insurance, whereby species persist on the landscape by shifting their distributions to track favorable conditions. In contrast, adaptation allows species to persist by allowing for evolutionary rescue. But, when species both adapt and disperse, dispersal and adaptation do not combine positively to affect biodiversity maintenance, even if they do increase the persistence of individual species. This occurs because faster adapting species evolve to hold onto their initial ranges (i.e., monopolization effects), thus impeding slower adapting species from shifting their ranges and thereby causing extinctions. Importantly, these differences in adaptation speed emerge as the result of competition, which alters population sizes and colonization success. By demonstrating how dispersal and adaptation each independently and interactively contribute to the maintenance of biodiversity, we provide a framework that links the theories of spatial insurance, evolutionary rescue, and monopolization. This highlights the expectation that the maintenance of biodiversity in changing environments depends jointly on rates of dispersal and adaptation, and, critically, the interaction between these processes.
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https://hal.umontpellier.fr/hal-02303496
Contributeur : Emanuel Alexis Fronhofer <>
Soumis le : mercredi 2 octobre 2019 - 13:05:21
Dernière modification le : jeudi 24 octobre 2019 - 09:54:28

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Patrick Thompson, Emanuel A Fronhofer. The conflict between adaptation and dispersal for maintaining biodiversity in changing environments. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , National Academy of Sciences, 2019, 116, pp.21061-21067. ⟨10.1073/pnas.1911796116⟩. ⟨hal-02303496⟩

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