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Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages and anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in reference hospitals across Viet Nam

Abstract : Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the tuberculosis (TB) pathogen, despite a low level of genetic diversity, has revealed a high variety of biological and epidemiological characteristics linked to their lineages, such as transmissibility, fitness and propensity to acquire drug resistance. This has important implications for the epidemiology of TB. We conducted this first countrywide cross-sectional study to identify the prevalent M. tuberculosis lineages and to assess their epidemiological associations and their relation to drug resistance. The study was conducted among isolates acquired in reference hospitals across Vietnam. Isolates with drug susceptibility testing profiles were identified for their lineages by spoligotyping. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association of M. tuberculosis lineages with location, age and sex of the patients and drug resistance levels.Results: Results showed that the most prevalent lineage was Beijing (55.4 %), followed by EAI (27.5 %), T (6.4 %), LAM (1.3 %), Haarlem (1 %) and Zero type (0.3 %). The proportion of Beijing isolates in the North (70.4 %) and the South (68 %) was higher than in the Centre (28 %) (OR = 1.7 [95 % CI: 1.4-2.0], p < 0.0001), whereas the proportion of EAI isolates in the North (7.1 %) and the South (17 %) was much lower compared with the Centre (59 %) (OR = 0.5 [95 % CI: 0.4-0.6], p < 0.0001). Overall, Beijing isolates were the most likely to be drug-resistant and EAI isolates were the least likely to be drug-resistant, except in the South of Vietnam where EAI is also highly drug-resistant. The proportion of Beijing isolates was significantly higher (p < 0.01), and the proportion of EAI isolates was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in younger patients. The proportion of drug-resistance was higher in isolates collected from male patients and from patients in the middle age groups.Conclusions: The findings suggest ongoing replacement of EAI lineage, which is mainly more drug-susceptible with highly drug-resistant Beijing lineage in all studied regions of Vietnam. Male patients of working ages should be the focus for better control to prevent the emergence of drug-resistant TB.
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Vân Nguyên, Anne-Laure Bañuls, Thanh Tran, Kim Pham, Thai Nguyen, et al.. Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages and anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in reference hospitals across Viet Nam. BMC Microbiology, BioMed Central, 2016, 16, pp.167. ⟨10.1186/s12866-016-0784-6⟩. ⟨hal-02003072⟩

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