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From biodiversity to catalytic diversity: how to control the reaction mechanism by the nature of metallophytes

Abstract : Phytoextraction is widely used for the reclamation of degraded sites, particularly to remove trace metals from contaminated soils. Whereas this technique demonstrates several advantages, the biomass resulting from phytoextraction processes is highly enriched in metallic elements and constitutes therefore a problematic waste. We show here that this biomass can be used for the preparation of novel polymetallic extracts, with high potential as catalysts or reagents in organic synthesis. This new concept of ecocatalysis constitutes an innovative recycling of metallic elements whose current known reserves could be exhausted in the coming decades. The ecocatalysts Eco-Zn and Eco-Ni prepared respectively from Zn and Ni hyperaccumulating plants display two distinct chemical reactivities, starting from the same substrates. Eco-Zn led to the formation of esters of commercial interest for the fragrance industry, following a hydro-acyloxy-addition reaction pathway. In contrast, Eco-Ni afforded chlorinated products thank to the hydrochlorination of alkenes. Both ecocatalysts allowed the synthesis of valuable products in high yields through methodologies in line with the spirit of sustainable chemistry.
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Vincent Escande, Tomasz Olszewski, Claude Grison. From biodiversity to catalytic diversity: how to control the reaction mechanism by the nature of metallophytes. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Springer Verlag, 2015, Combining Phytoextraction and Ecological Catalysis: an Environmental, Ecological, Ethic and Economic Opportunity, 22 (8), pp.5653 - 5666. ⟨10.1007/s11356-014-3483-6⟩. ⟨hal-01937604⟩

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