Impact of genioplasty during puberty on the upper airways - Université de Montpellier Accéder directement au contenu
Article Dans Une Revue International Orthodontics Année : 2015

Impact of genioplasty during puberty on the upper airways


AIM: Mouth breathing is a functional disorder that affects craniofacial and dento-alveolar growth and also upper airway (UA) anatomy. This is apparent mainly in dimensional abnormalities of the UA caused by hypertrophy of Waldeyer's ring and excessive vertical development of the lower part, giving rise to labial incompetence that perpetuates the functional disorder. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the development of the oropharyngeal structures in young hyperdivergent patients who had undergone functional genioplasty in the context of orthodontic treatment. METHODS: This is a comparative retrospective study performed on 47 adolescents who were hyperdivergent, non-obese and exclusive or diurnal mouth breathers, treated at the Centre de soins, d'enseignement et de recherche dentaires (CSERD) in Montpellier, France. All were candidates for early genioplasty for vertical reduction, and were undergoing or at the end of treatment: 23 had been treated surgically (functional genioplasty), and 24 controls had received orthodontic treatment alone. Inter-group comparison of the changes in cephalometric measurements of the oro- and nasopharyngeal zones and maxillomandibular measurements was performed using covariance analysis (ANCOVA) to adjust for confounding factors. RESULTS: Concerning the skeletal structures: in the sagittal dimension, genioplasty led to significantly greater projection of the symphysis in the surgical group than in the control group (P<0.001). However, the sagittal position of the hyoid bone was unchanged. Similarly, in the vertical dimension, the reduction in divergence of the bony base was significantly greater in the surgical group (P<0.001), but with no change in the vertical position of the hyoid bone. Concerning the upper airways: at the level of the nasopharynx, there was a significantly greater increase in the velopharyngeal space in the surgical group (P<0.033). The same observation can be made on the level of the oropharynx, where there was a significant increase in the linguopharyngeal space in the surgical group (P<0.05), which was not the case in the control group. The change in the depth of the pharynx did not differ significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Early genioplasty performed on adolescents during the growth phase helps to recalibrate the UA by encouraging spontaneous lip closure.
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Dates et versions

hal-01915414 , version 1 (07-11-2018)



Valérie Bedoucha, François Boutin, Laure Frapier. Impact of genioplasty during puberty on the upper airways. International Orthodontics, 2015, 13 (4), pp.421 - 435. ⟨10.1016/j.ortho.2015.09.005⟩. ⟨hal-01915414⟩
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