, by European Community Research Infrastructure Action under the FP7 Integrating Activities Programme (GB-TAF-4750 to JEM).!We are very grateful to the late Nawab M

. Akbar-khan-bugti, then Lord of the Bugti Tribes, and to all the members of the Bugti family, for their invitations, and their constant support. Warm thanks to H. E. Iqbal Akhund and K

. Majidhula, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, the French Ministry of Education and Research, the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Fondation Singer-Polignac and the Leakey Foundation)

O. A. Aguilera, D. Riff, and J. Bocquentin-villanueva, A new giant Purussaurus (crocodyliformes, alligatoridae) from the upper Miocene Urumaco formation, Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, vol.4, pp.221-232, 2006.

P. Antoine and J. Welcomme, the oldest elasmotheriine, A new rhinoceros from the lower Miocene of the Bugti Hills, vol.43, pp.795-816, 2000.

P. Antoine, S. M. Shah, I. U. Cheema, J. Crochet, D. De-franceschi et al., New remains of the baluchithere Paraceratherium bugtiense (Pilgrim, 1910) from the Late/latest Oligocene of the Bugti Hills, vol.24, pp.71-77, 2004.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00021851

P. Antoine, J. Welcomme, L. Marivaux, I. Baloch, M. Benammi et al., First record of Paleogene Elephantoidea (Proboscidea, Mammalia) from the Bugti Hills of Pakistan, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, vol.23, pp.977-980, 2003.

P. Antoine, K. F. Downing, J. Crochet, F. Duranthon, L. J. Flynn et al., A revision of Aceratherium blanfordi Lydekker, 1884 (Mammalia: Rhinocerotidae) from the early Miocene of Pakistan: postcranials as a key, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol.160, pp.139-194, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00551247

P. Antoine, G. Métais, M. J. Orliac, J. Crochet, L. J. Flynn et al., Mammalian Neogene biostratigraphy of the Sulaiman Province, Pakistan, pp.400-422, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01813453

. Fortelius, Fossil mammals of Asia: Neogene Biostratigraphy and Chronology

T. Aureliano, A. M. Ghilardi, E. Guilherme, J. P. Souza-filho, M. Cavalcanti et al., Morphometry, bite-force, and paleobiology of the Late Miocene Caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis, PloS one, vol.10, p.117944, 2015.

A. Britton, R. Whitaker, and N. Whitaker, Here be a dragon: exceptional size in a saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) from the Philippines, Herpetological Review, vol.43, pp.541-546, 2012.

C. A. Brochu and G. W. Storrs, A giant crocodile from the Plio-Pleistocene of Kenya, the phylogenetic relationships of Neogene African crocodylines, and the antiquity of Crocodylus in Africa, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, vol.32, pp.587-602, 2012.

E. Buffetaut, Présence du crocodilien Phosphatosaurus (Mesosuchia, Dyrosauridae) dans le paléocène du Niger et du Mali, Paläontologische Zeitschrift, vol.53, pp.323-333, 1979.

D. Silva, A. , and J. Lenin, Mugger crocodile Crocodylus palustris. Third Edition. Status survey and conservation action plan, Darwin: Crocodile Specialist Group, vol.14, pp.94-98, 2010.

M. Delfino, M. Böhme, and L. Rook, First European evidence for transcontinental dispersal of Crocodylus (late Neogene of southern Italy), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol.149, pp.293-307, 2007.

M. Delfino and T. Smith, A reassessment of the morphology and taxonomic status of 'Crocodylus' depressifrons (Crocodylia, Crocodyloidea) based on the Early Eocene remains from Belgium, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol.156, pp.140-167, 2009.

M. Delfino, D. Vos, and J. , A giant crocodile in the Dubois Collection from the Pleistocene of Kali Gedeh (Java), Integrative zoology, vol.9, pp.141-147, 2014.

G. M. Erickson and C. A. Brochu, How the 'terror crocodile grew so big, Nature, vol.398, p.205, 1999.

L. J. Fitzinger, Neue Classification der Reptilien nach ihren natürlichen Verwandtschaften. Nebsteiner Verwandtschaftstafel und einem Verzeichnisseder Reptiliensammlung des K.K. Zoologischen Museum's zu Wien, 1826.

Y. Fukuda, K. Saalfeld, G. Lindner, and T. Nichols, Estimation of total length from head length of saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in the Northern Territory, Australia. Journal of Herpetology, vol.47, pp.34-40, 2013.

J. F. Gmelin, 1789. Tom. I. Pars III. Pages 1033-1516 in Caroli a Linné

J. J. Head, Systematics and body size of the gigantic, enigmatic crocodyloid Rhamphosuchus crassidens, and the faunal history of Siwalik Group (Miocene) crocodylians, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, vol.21, p.59, 2001.

F. Lihoreau, L. Alloing-séguier, P. Antoine, J. Boisserie, L. Marivaux et al., Enamel microstructure defines a major Paleogene hippopotamoid clade: the Merycopotamini (Artiodactyla, Hippopotamoidea), Historical Biology, vol.29, pp.947-957, 2017.

L. Marivaux, P. J.-l.-welcomme, G. Antoine, I. M. Métais, M. Baloch et al., A fossil lemur from the Oligocene of Pakistan, Science, vol.294, pp.587-591, 2001.

L. Marivaux, P. Antoine, S. R. Baqri, M. Benammi, Y. Chaimanee et al.,

N. De-franceschi, J. Iqbal, G. Jaeger, G. Métais, J. Roohi et al., Anthropoid primates from the Oligocene of Pakistan (Bugti Hills): data on early anthropoid evolution and biogeography, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.102, pp.8436-8441, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00319568

L. Marivaux, M. Vianey-liaud, and J. Welcomme, Première découverte de Cricetidae (Rodentia, Mammalia) oligocènes dans le synclinal Sud de Gandoï, vol.329, pp.839-844, 1999.

L. Marivaux and J. Welcomme, Diatomyid and baluchimyine rodents from the Oligocene of Pakistan, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, vol.23, pp.420-434, 2003.

L. Marivaux, S. J.-l.-welcomme, J. Ducrocq, and . Jaeger, ) bridges the gap between Eocene and Miocene adapiform communities in southern Asia, Oligocene sivaladapid primate from the Bugti Hills, vol.42, pp.379-388, 2002.

L. Marivaux, M. J.-l.-welcomme, J. Vianey-liaud, and . Jaeger, The role of Asia in the origin and diversification of hystricognathous rodents, Zoologica Scripta, vol.31, pp.225-239, 2002.

J. E. Martin, K. Lauprasert, E. Buffetaut, R. Liard, and V. Suteethorn, A large pholidosaurid in the Phu Kradung Formation of north-eastern Thailand, Palaeontology, vol.57, pp.757-769, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02351055

J. E. Martin, The taxonomic content of the genus Gavialis from the Siwalik Hills of India and Pakistan. Papers in Palaeontology, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02123647

J. E. Martin, K. Lauprasert, E. Buffetaut, R. Liard, and V. Suteethorn, A large pholidosaurid in the Phu Kradung Formation of northeastern Thailand, Palaeontology, vol.57, pp.757-769, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02351055

J. E. Martin, J. Raslan-loubatié, and J. Mazin, Cranial anatomy of Pholidosaurus purbeckensis from the Lower Cretaceous of France and its bearing on pholidosaurid affinities, Cretaceous Research, vol.66, pp.43-59, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01625346

G. Métais, P. Antoine, S. R. Baqri, M. Benammi, J. Crochet et al., New remains of the enigmatic cetartiodactyl Bugtitherium grandincisivum Pilgrim 1908, from the upper Oligocene of the Bugti Hills, vol.93, pp.348-355, 2006.

G. Métais, P. Antoine, L. Marivaux, S. Ducrocq, and J. Welcomme, New artiodactyl ruminant mammal from the late Oligocene of Pakistan, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, vol.48, pp.375-382, 2003.

G. Métais, P. Antoine, S. H. Baqri, J. Crochet, D. De-franceschi et al., Lithofacies, depositional environments, regional biostratigraphy and age of the Chitarwata Formation in the Bugti Hills, vol.34, pp.154-167, 2009.

G. Métais, S. J.--l.-welcomme, and . Ducrocq, New lophiomerycid ruminants from the Oligocene of the Bugti Hills, vol.29, pp.231-241, 2009.

G. Métais, B. Mennecart, and G. Roohi, A new assemblage of stem pecoran ruminants from the Oligocene Chitarwata Formation, p.17, 2017.

P. Paleoenvironmental and . Implications, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol.136, pp.40-49

J. Njau and R. J. Blumenschine, A diagnosis of crocodile feeding traces on larger mammal bone, with fossil examples from the Plio-Pleistocene Olduva Basin, Journal of Human Evolution, vol.50, pp.142-162, 2006.

M. J. Orliac, P. , A. , G. Métais, J. Crochet et al.,

. Welcomme, Listriodon guptai Pilgrim, 1926 (Mammalia, Suidae) from the early Miocene of the Bugti Hills, vol.96, pp.911-920, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01901055

M. J. Orliac, P. Antoine, G. Roohi, and J. Welcomme, Suoidea (Mammalia, Cetartiodatyla) from the early Oligocene of the Bugti Hills, vol.30, pp.1300-1305, 2010.

G. E. Pilgrim, The Tertiary and post-Tertiary freshwater deposits of Baluchistan and Sind with notices of new vertebrates, Records oft he Geological Survey of India, vol.37, pp.139-166, 1908.

G. E. Pilgrim, The vertebrate fauna of the Gaj series in the Bugti Hills and the Punjab. Memoirs oft he Geological Survey of India, Palaeontologica Indica New Series, vol.4, pp.1-83, 1912.

D. Riff and O. A. Aguilera, The world's largest gharials Gryposuchus: description of G. croizati n. sp. (Crocodylia, Gavialidae) from the Upper Miocene Urumaco Formation, Paläontologische Zeitschrift, vol.82, pp.178-195, 2008.

R. Salas-gismondi, J. J. Flynn, P. Baby, J. Tejada-lara, F. P. Wesselingh et al., A Miocene hyperdiverse crocodylian community reveals peculiar trophic dynamics in proto-Amazonian mega-wetlands, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol.282, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01922770

P. C. Sereno, H. C. Larsson, C. A. Sidor, and B. Gado, The giant crocodyliform Sarcosuchus from the Cretaceous of Africa, Science, vol.294, pp.1516-1519, 2001.

R. G. Souza, G. M. Cidade, D. A. De, D. Campos, and . Riff, New crocodilian remains from the Solimões Formation (lower Eocene-Pliocene), state of Acre, Southwestern Brazilian Amazonia, Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, vol.19, pp.217-232, 2016.

E. Stromer, Ergebnisse der Forschungsreisen Prof. E. Stromers in den Wüsten Ägyptens. II. Wirbeltier-Reste der Baharije-Stufe (unterstes Cenoman). 7. Stomatosuchus inermis Stromer, ein schwach bezahnter Krokodilier und 8. Ein Skelettrest des Pristiden Onchopristis numidus Haug sp. Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, vol.30, pp.1-22, 1925.

N. Vickary, Geological report on a portion of the Beloochistan Hills, The Quaterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, vol.2, pp.260-266, 1846.

J. L. Welcomme, P. Antoine, F. Duranthon, P. Mein, and L. Ginsburg, Nouvelles découvertes de Vertébrés miocènes dans le synclinal de Dera Bugti, vol.325, pp.531-536, 1997.

J. Welcomme and L. Ginsburg, Mise en évidence de l'Oligocène sur le territoire des Bugti, Sciences-Series IIA-Earth and Planetary Science, vol.325, pp.999-1004, 1997.

J. L. Welcomme, M. Benammi, J. Y. Crochet, L. Marivaux, G. Métais et al., Himalayan Forelands: palaeontological evidence for Oligocene detrital deposits in the Bugti Hills, Geological Magazine, vol.138, pp.397-405, 2001.

, Figure captions FIGURE 1. Holotype specimen (IM E221) of Astorgosuchus bugtiensis comb. nov., modified after plates XXVI and XXVII in Pilgrim (1912), Oligocene, Pishi Nala, Bugti Hills, Pakistan 19 in A, dorsal view and B, ventral view. Abbreviations: en, external nares; lp, lacrimal prominence; mx, maxilla; np, nasal prominence; op, occlusal pit; pmx, premaxilla; pmxp, premaxillary prominence; sof, suborbital fenestra. Numerals refer to maxillary alveolar count, 2019.

, FIGURE 2. Photographs and associated drawings of the mandibular rostrum of Astorgosuchus bugtiensis comb

B. Hills, B. Pakistan-in-a, C. , and D. Views, Abbreviations: den, dentary

, fo, foramen; sp, splenial; numerals denote alveolar count

B. Hills, B. Pakistan-in-a, E. , and F. Views, Abbreviations: fo, foramen; sp, splenial; numbers denote alveolar count

, FIGURE 4. Photographs of the partial mandibular rostrum of Astorgosuchus bugtiensis comb. nov. (NHMUK R.5266) from the Oligocene of the Bugti Hills

, Selected perissodactyl specimens from the upper Oligocene-lower Miocene deposits of the Bugti Hills, Pakistan, presenting toothmarks attributable to large crocodylomorphs. A, cf. Rhinoceros sp. (MNHN-Pak 2221 field-number), distal fragment of a left ulna, FIGURE 5, p.20

, juvenile jaw, in lingual view (Lundo Chur J2 locality, upper Oligocene). C, Chalicotheriidae indet. (MNHN-Pak 1715), fragmentary right tibia

. Figure-s1, Regression lined obtained for skull length versus dentary width (in cm) of modern specimens of Crocodylus (blue dots). The equation is used to infer skull dimensions of the two mandibles of Astorgosuchus bugtiensis