E. Hachulla and D. Launay, Diagnosis and classification of systemic sclerosis, Clin Rev Allergy Immunol, vol.40, pp.78-83, 2011.

M. Elhai, C. Meune, J. Avouac, A. Kahan, and Y. Allanore, Trends in mortality in patients with systemic sclerosis over 40 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol.51, pp.1017-1043, 2012.

. Inca and . Indc, Epidémiologie Nationale du Cancer: Incidence et Mortalité en, 2017.

A. J. Tyndall, B. Bannert, M. Vonk, P. Airo, F. Cozzi et al., Causes and risk factors for death in systemic sclerosis: a study from the EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) database, Ann Rheum Dis, vol.69, pp.1809-1824, 2010.

N. Zeineddine, L. E. Khoury, and J. Mosak, Systemic sclerosis and malignancy: a review of current data, J Clin Med Res, vol.8, pp.625-657, 2016.

A. A. Shah and L. Casciola-rosen, Cancer and scleroderma: a paraneoplastic disease with implications for malignancy screening, Curr Opin Rheumatol, vol.27, pp.563-70, 2015.

M. G. Lazzaroni, I. Cavazzana, E. Colombo, R. Dobrota, J. Hernandez et al., Malignancies in patients with Anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies and systemic sclerosis: analysis of the EULAR scleroderma trials and research cohort and possible recommendations for screening, J Rheumatol, vol.44, pp.639-686, 2017.

A. A. Shah, L. Casciola-rosen, and A. Rosen, Review: cancer-induced autoimmunity in the rheumatic diseases, Arthritis Rheumatol, vol.67, pp.317-343, 2015.

A. A. Shah and L. Casciola-rosen, Mechanistic and clinical insights at the scleroderma-cancer interface, J Scleroderma Relat Disord, vol.2, pp.153-162, 2017.

L. B. Travis, R. E. Curtis, B. Glimelius, E. J. Holowaty, F. E. Van-leeuwen et al., Bladder and kidney cancer following cyclophosphamide therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, J Natl Cancer Inst, vol.87, pp.524-554, 1995.

C. Talar-williams, Y. M. Hijazi, M. M. Walther, W. M. Linehan, C. W. Hallahan et al., Cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis and bladder cancer in patients with Wegener granulomatosis, Ann Intern Med, vol.124, pp.477-84, 1996.

W. R. Finch, G. P. Rodnan, R. B. Buckingham, R. K. Prince, and A. Winkelstein, Bleomycin-induced scleroderma, J Rheumatol, vol.7, pp.651-660, 1980.

J. Varga, U. F. Haustein, R. H. Creech, J. P. Dwyer, and S. A. Jimenez, Exaggerated radiation-induced fibrosis in patients with systemic sclerosis, JAMA, vol.265, pp.3292-3297, 1991.

D. Bessis, B. Guillot, E. Legouffe, and J. J. Guilhou, Gemcitabine-associated scleroderma-like changes of the lower extremities, J Am Acad Dermatol, vol.51, pp.73-79, 2004.

A. A. Shah and A. Rosen, Cancer and systemic sclerosis: novel insights into pathogenesis and clinical implications, Curr Opin Rheumatol, vol.23, pp.530-535, 2011.

A. A. Shah, A. Rosen, L. Hummers, F. Wigley, and L. Casciola-rosen, Close temporal relationship between onset of cancer and scleroderma in patients with RNA polymerase I/III antibodies, Arthritis Rheum, vol.62, pp.2787-95, 2010.

G. J. Xu, A. A. Shah, M. Z. Li, Q. Xu, A. Rosen et al., Systematic autoantigen analysis identifies a distinct subtype of scleroderma with coincident cancer, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.113, pp.7526-7560, 2016.

M. Wooten, Systemic sclerosis and malignancy: a review of the literature, South Med J, vol.101, pp.59-62, 2008.

A. B. Olesen, C. Svaerke, D. K. Farkas, and H. T. Sorensen, Systemic sclerosis and the risk of cancer: a nationwide population-based cohort study, Br J Dermatol, vol.163, pp.800-806, 2010.

M. Bonifazi, I. Tramacere, G. Pomponio, B. Gabrielli, E. V. Avvedimento et al., Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) and cancer risk: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, Rheumatology, vol.52, pp.143-54, 2013.

A. Onishi, D. Sugiyama, S. Kumagai, and A. Morinobu, Cancer incidence in systemic sclerosis: meta-analysis of population-based cohort studies, Arthritis Rheum, vol.65, pp.1913-1934, 2013.

T. Igusa, L. K. Hummers, K. Visvanathan, C. Richardson, F. M. Wigley et al., Autoantibodies and scleroderma phenotype define subgroups at high-risk and low-risk for cancer, Ann Rheum Dis, vol.77, pp.1179-86, 2018.

A. K. Rosenthal, J. K. Mclaughlin, G. Gridley, and O. Nyren, Incidence of cancer among patients with systemic sclerosis, Cancer, vol.76, pp.910-914, 1995.

C. L. Hill, A. M. Nguyen, D. Roder, and P. Roberts-thomson, Risk of cancer in patients with scleroderma: a population based cohort study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol.62, pp.728-759, 2003.

C. F. Kuo, S. F. Luo, K. H. Yu, I. J. Chou, W. Y. Tseng et al., Cancer risk among patients with systemic sclerosis: a nationwide population study in Taiwan, Scand J Rheumatol, vol.41, pp.44-53, 2012.

M. Colaci, D. Giuggioli, M. Sebastiani, A. Manfredi, C. Vacchi et al., Lung cancer in scleroderma: results from an Italian rheumatologic center and review of the literature, Autoimmun Rev, vol.12, pp.374-383, 2013.

S. Chatterjee, G. W. Dombi, R. K. Severson, and M. D. Mayes, Risk of malignancy in scleroderma: a population-based cohort study, Arthritis Rheum, vol.52, pp.2415-2439, 2005.

M. Peters-golden, R. A. Wise, M. Hochberg, M. B. Stevens, and F. M. Wigley, Incidence of lung cancer in systemic sclerosis, J Rheumatol, vol.12, pp.1136-1145, 1985.

A. D. Roumm and M. Tajr, Cancer and systemic sclerosis. An epidemiologic study, Arthritis Rheum, vol.28, pp.1336-1376, 1985.

M. Colaci, D. Giuggioli, C. Vacchi, F. Lumetti, F. Iachetta et al., Breast cancer in systemic sclerosis: results of a cross-linkage of an Italian Rheumatologic Center and a population-based cancer registry and review of the literature, Autoimmun Rev, vol.13, pp.132-139, 2014.

D. Launay, L. Berre, R. Hatron, P. Y. Peyrat, J. P. Hachulla et al., Association between systemic sclerosis and breast cancer: eight new cases and review of the literature, Clin Rheumatol, vol.23, pp.516-538, 2004.

C. T. Derk, Associations of breast cancer development in patients with systemic sclerosis: an exploratory study, Clin Rheumatol, vol.26, pp.1615-1624, 2007.

P. Moinzadeh, C. Fonseca, M. Hellmich, A. A. Shah, C. Chighizola et al., Association of anti-RNA polymerase III autoantibodies and cancer in scleroderma, Arthritis Res Ther, vol.16, p.53, 2014.

A. A. Shah, L. K. Hummers, L. Casciola-rosen, K. Visvanathan, A. Rosen et al., Examination of autoantibody status and clinical features associated with cancer risk and cancer-associated scleroderma, Arthritis Rheumatol, vol.67, pp.1053-61, 2015.

D. Bernal-bello, J. G. De-tena, G. Castillo, A. Selva-o'callaghan, A. Callejas-moraga et al., Novel risk factors related to cancer in scleroderma, Autoimmun Rev, vol.16, pp.461-469, 2017.

R. H. Straub, M. Zeuner, G. Lock, J. Scholmerich, and B. Lang, High prolactin and low dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate serum levels in patients with severe systemic sclerosis, Br J Rheumatol, vol.36, pp.426-458, 1997.

M. Wang, X. Wu, F. Chai, Y. Zhang, and J. Jiang, Plasma prolactin and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis, Sci Rep, vol.6, p.25998, 2016.

C. I. Li, J. R. Daling, M. T. Tang, K. L. Haugen, P. L. Porter et al., Use of antihypertensive medications and breast cancer risk among women aged 55 to 74 years, JAMA Intern Med, vol.173, pp.1629-1666, 2013.

I. Gomez-acebo, T. Dierssen-sotos, C. Palazuelos, B. Perez-gomez, V. Lope et al., The use of antihypertensive medication and the risk of breast cancer in a case-control study in a Spanish population: the MCCSpain study, PLoS ONE, vol.11, 2016.

D. Bernal-bello, G. De-tena, J. , S. , C. Fonollosa-pla et al., Systemic sclerosis, breast cancer and calcium channel blockers: a new player on the scene?, Autoimmun Rev, vol.13, pp.880-881, 2014.

T. M. Brasky, J. L. Krok-schoen, J. Liu, R. T. Chlebowski, J. L. Freudenheim et al., Use of calcium channel blockers and breast cancer risk in the Women's health initiative, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, vol.26, pp.1345-1353, 2017.

C. T. Derk, M. Rasheed, C. M. Artlett, and S. A. Jimenez, A cohort study of cancer incidence in systemic sclerosis, J Rheumatol, vol.33, pp.1113-1119, 2006.

J. Wipff, Y. Allanore, F. Soussi, B. Terris, V. Abitbol et al., Prevalence of Barrett's esophagus in systemic sclerosis, Arthritis Rheum, vol.52, pp.2882-2890, 2005.

J. Wipff, R. Coriat, M. Masciocchi, P. Caramaschi, C. T. Derk et al., Outcomes of Barrett's oesophagus related to systemic sclerosis: a 3-year EULAR scleroderma trials and research prospective follow-up study, Rheumatology, vol.50, 2011.

S. Vettori, S. Staibano, M. Mascolo, G. Ilardi, and G. Valentini, Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in systemic sclerosis: case and literature review, Clin Rheumatol, vol.29, pp.1-6, 2010.

L. Mellemkjaer, R. M. Pfeiffer, E. A. Engels, G. Gridley, W. Wheeler et al., Autoimmune disease in individuals and close family members and susceptibility to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Arthritis Rheum, vol.58, pp.657-66, 2008.

M. Fallah, X. Liu, J. J. Forsti, A. Sundquist, K. Hemminki et al., Autoimmune diseases associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a nationwide cohort study, Ann Oncol, vol.25, pp.2025-2055, 2014.

T. Kasifoglu, Y. Bilge, S. Yildiz, F. Ozen, G. Pehlivan et al., Risk factors for malignancy in systemic sclerosis patients, Clin Rheumatol, vol.35, pp.1529-1562, 2016.

S. Bernatsky, M. Hudson, J. Pope, J. Markland, D. Robinson et al., Reports of abnormal cervical cancer screening tests in systemic sclerosis, Rheumatology, vol.48, pp.149-51, 2009.

M. Martin, C. Mougin, J. L. Pretet, H. Gil, N. Meaux-ruault et al., Screening of human papillomavirus infection in women with systemic sclerosis, Clin Exp Rheumatol, issue.6, pp.145-153, 2014.

V. M. Ognenovski, W. Marder, E. C. Somers, C. M. Johnston, J. G. Farrehi et al., Increased incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in women with systemic lupus erythematosus treated with intravenous cyclophosphamide, J Rheumatol, vol.31, pp.1763-1770, 2004.

A. Antonelli, C. Ferri, P. Fallahi, M. Cazzato, S. M. Ferrari et al., Clinical and subclinical autoimmune thyroid disorders in systemic sclerosis, Eur J Endocrinol, vol.156, pp.431-438, 2007.

A. Antonelli, C. Ferri, S. M. Ferrari, D. Domenicantonio, A. Giuggioli et al., Increased risk of papillary thyroid cancer in systemic sclerosis associated with autoimmune thyroiditis, Rheumatology, vol.55, pp.480-484, 2016.

I. Grewal, O. Khan, and W. Davis, Squamous cell carcinoma and eosinophilia in a long-term course of pansclerotic morphea, BMJ Case Rep, p.2014, 2014.

N. S. Barbosa, D. A. Wetter, C. N. Wieland, N. K. Shenoy, S. N. Markovic et al., Scleroderma Induced by pembrolizumab: a case series

, Mayo Clin Proc, vol.92, pp.1158-63, 2017.

J. L. Silva, D. S. Faria, F. Teixeira, M. C. Afonso, and D. Peixoto, Systemic sclerosis induced by interferon-alfa treatment of melanoma, Acta Reumatol Port, vol.42, pp.263-267, 2017.

M. Cho, Y. Nonomura, Y. Kaku, S. Nakabo, Y. Endo et al., Scleroderma-like syndrome associated with nivolumab treatment in malignant melanoma, J Dermatol, vol.46, pp.43-47, 2019.

N. Cleenewerck, J. Leone, L. Demange, F. Valoni, A. Schvartz et al.,

, Rev Med Interne, vol.18, pp.676-684, 1997.

G. W. Westermann, H. Buerger, U. Kappes, F. Matzkies, and K. Kisters, Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with lung metastasis in a patient with progressive systemic sclerosis, South Med J, vol.95, pp.363-368, 2002.

N. Puizina-ivic, J. Bezic, D. Marasovic, V. Gotovac, A. Carija et al., Angiosarcoma arising in sclerodermatous skin, Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat, vol.14, pp.20-25, 2005.

N. Banka and A. Alfadley, Leiomyosarcoma of the chest wall with cutaneous metastases to the scalp in a patient with systemic sclerosis, J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, vol.20, pp.468-72, 2006.

N. Kubota, Y. Fujisawa, Y. Nakamura, R. Tanaka, A. Saito et al., Angiosarcoma of the scalp in a patient with systemic sclerosis, J Dermatol, vol.42, pp.102-106, 2015.

F. Aguiar, D. Araujo, and I. Brito, Systemic sclerosis and Kaposi's sarcoma with pulmonary involvement: an unexpected association, Arch Bronconeumol, vol.53, pp.165-171, 2017.

S. P. Hussain and C. C. Harris, Inflammation and cancer: an ancient link with novel potentials, Int J Cancer, vol.121, pp.2373-80, 2007.

J. K. Kundu and Y. J. Surh, Inflammation: gearing the journey to cancer, Mutat Res, vol.659, 2008.

D. Hanahan and R. A. Weinberg, Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation, Cell, vol.144, pp.646-74, 2011.

M. Pesic and F. R. Greten, Inflammation and cancer: tissue regeneration gone awry, Curr Opin Cell Biol, vol.43, pp.55-61, 2016.

P. J. Trivedi, W. J. Lammers, H. R. Van-buuren, A. Pares, A. Floreani et al., Stratification of hepatocellular carcinoma risk in primary biliary cirrhosis: a multicentre international study, Gut, vol.65, pp.321-330, 2016.

K. M. Antoniou, S. Tomassetti, E. Tsitoura, and C. Vancheri, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer: a clinical and pathogenesis update, Curr Opin Pulm Med, vol.21, pp.626-659, 2015.

S. Ballaz and J. L. Mulshine, The potential contributions of chronic inflammation to lung carcinogenesis, Clin Lung Cancer, vol.5, pp.46-62, 2003.

N. Kanaji, J. Fujita, S. Bandoh, T. Fukumoto, M. Ishikawa et al., Small cell lung cancer associated with systemic sclerosis, Intern Med, vol.44, pp.315-323, 2005.

R. Kalluri and M. Zeisberg, Fibroblasts in cancer, Nat Rev Cancer, vol.6, pp.392-401, 2006.

N. Kwak, C. M. Park, J. Lee, Y. S. Park, S. M. Lee et al., Lung cancer risk among patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema, Respir Med, vol.108, pp.524-554, 2014.

M. Zhang, A. Yoshizawa, S. Kawakami, S. Asaka, H. Yamamoto et al., The histological characteristics and clinical outcomes of lung cancer in patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema, Cancer Med, vol.5, pp.2721-2751, 2016.

J. Nikitorowicz-buniak, C. P. Denton, D. Abraham, and R. Stratton, Partially Evoked Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is associated with increased TGFbeta signaling within lesional scleroderma skin, PLoS ONE, vol.10, 2015.

M. Dolcino, A. Pelosi, P. F. Fiore, G. Patuzzo, E. Tinazzi et al., Gene profiling in patients with systemic sclerosis reveals the presence of oncogenic gene signatures, Front Immunol, vol.9, p.449, 2018.

K. Cleal, K. Norris, and D. Baird, Telomere length dynamics and the evolution of cancer genome architecture, Int J Mol Sci, vol.19, p.482, 2018.

C. M. Artlett, C. M. Black, D. C. Briggs, C. O. Stevens, and K. I. Welsh, Telomere reduction in scleroderma patients: a possible cause for chromosomal instability, Br J Rheumatol, vol.35, pp.732-739, 1996.

F. Tarhan, F. Vural, B. Kosova, K. Aksu, O. Cogulu et al., Telomerase activity in connective tissue diseases: elevated in rheumatoid arthritis, but markedly decreased in systemic sclerosis, Rheumatol Int, vol.28, pp.579-83, 2008.

B. D. Stuart, J. S. Lee, J. Kozlitina, I. Noth, M. S. Devine et al., Effect of telomere length on survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: an observational cohort study with independent validation, Lancet Respir Med, vol.2, pp.557-65, 2014.

W. Lei, Y. Luo, W. Lei, Y. Luo, K. Yan et al., Abnormal DNA methylation in CD4+ T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and dermatomyositis, Scand J Rheumatol, vol.38, pp.369-74, 2009.

M. Ciechomska, J. M. Van-laar, O. Reilly, and S. , Emerging role of epigenetics in systemic sclerosis pathogenesis, Genes Immun, vol.15, pp.433-442, 2014.

X. Lian, R. Xiao, X. Hu, T. Kanekura, H. Jiang et al., DNA demethylation of CD40l in CD4+ T cells from women with systemic sclerosis: a possible explanation for female susceptibility, Arthritis Rheum, vol.64, pp.2338-2383, 2012.

Y. Wang and B. Kahaleh, Epigenetic repression of bone morphogenetic protein receptor II expression in scleroderma, J Cell Mol Med, vol.17, pp.1291-1300, 2013.

H. Jiang, R. Xiao, X. Lian, T. Kanekura, Y. Luo et al., Demethylation of TNFSF7 contributes to CD70 overexpression in CD4+ T cells from patients with systemic sclerosis, Clin Immunol, vol.143, pp.39-44, 2012.

C. M. Hedrich and T. Rauen, Epigenetic patterns in systemic sclerosis and their contribution to attenuated CD70 signaling cascades, Clin Immunol, vol.143, pp.1-3, 2012.

Y. Wang, P. S. Fan, and B. Kahaleh, Association between enhanced type I collagen expression and epigenetic repression of the FLI1 gene in scleroderma fibroblasts, Arthritis Rheum, vol.54, pp.2271-2280, 2006.

Y. Li, H. Luo, T. Liu, E. Zacksenhaus, and Y. Ben-david, The ets transcription factor Fli-1 in development, cancer and disease, Oncogene, vol.34, pp.2022-2053, 2015.

B. Hu, M. Gharaee-kermani, Z. Wu, and S. H. Phan, Essential role of MeCP2 in the regulation of myofibroblast differentiation during pulmonary fibrosis, Am J Pathol, vol.178, pp.1500-1508, 2011.

R. Kanwal, K. Gupta, and S. Gupta, Cancer epigenetics: an introduction, Methods Mol Biol, vol.1238, pp.3-25, 2015.

B. S. Comer, M. Ba, C. A. Singer, and W. T. Gerthoffer, Epigenetic targets for novel therapies of lung diseases, Pharmacol Ther, vol.147, pp.91-110, 2015.

A. K. Ghosh, S. Bhattacharyya, R. Lafyatis, G. Farina, J. Yu et al., p300 is elevated in systemic sclerosis and its expression is positively regulated by TGF-beta: epigenetic feed-forward amplification of fibrosis, J Invest Dermatol, vol.133, pp.1302-1312, 2013.

J. Wei, A. K. Ghosh, H. Chu, F. Fang, M. E. Hinchcliff et al., The histone deacetylase sirtuin 1 is reduced in systemic sclerosis and abrogates fibrotic responses by targeting transforming growth factor beta signaling, Arthritis Rheumatol, vol.67, pp.1323-1357, 2015.

A. E. Wyman and S. P. Atamas, Sirtuins and accelerated aging in scleroderma, Curr Rheumatol Rep, vol.20, p.16, 2018.

S. Masri, Sirtuin-dependent clock control: new advances in metabolism, aging and cancer, Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, vol.18, pp.521-528, 2015.

H. Zhu, H. Luo, Y. Li, Y. Zhou, Y. Jiang et al., MicroRNA-21 in scleroderma fibrosis and its function in TGF-beta-regulated fibrosis-related genes expression, J Clin Immunol, vol.33, pp.1100-1109, 2013.

J. Shi, Considering exosomal miR-21 as a biomarker for cancer, J Clin Med, vol.5, p.42, 2016.

B. Maurer, J. Stanczyk, A. Jungel, A. Akhmetshina, M. Trenkmann et al., MicroRNA-29, a key regulator of collagen expression in systemic sclerosis, Arthritis Rheum, vol.62, pp.1733-1776, 2010.

G. Bagnato, W. N. Roberts, J. Roman, and S. Gangemi, A systematic review of overlapping microRNA patterns in systemic sclerosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Eur Respir Rev, vol.26, p.160125, 2017.

Y. Wang, J. Liu, J. Chen, T. Feng, and Q. Guo, MiR-29 mediates TGFbeta 1-induced extracellular matrix synthesis through activation of Wnt/betacatenin pathway in human pulmonary fibroblasts, Technol Health Care, issue.1, pp.119-144, 2015.

E. Bibaki, E. Tsitoura, E. Vasarmidi, G. Margaritopoulos, A. Trachalaki et al., miR-185 and miR-29a are similarly expressed in the bronchoalveolar lavage cells in IPF and lung cancer but common targets DNMT1 and COL1A1 show disease specific patterns, Mol Med Rep, vol.17, pp.7713-7735, 2007.

K. V. Pandit, D. Corcoran, H. Yousef, M. Yarlagadda, A. Tzouvelekis et al., Inhibition and role of let-7d in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol.182, pp.220-229, 2010.

M. Etoh, M. Jinnin, K. Makino, K. Yamane, W. Nakayama et al., microRNA-7 down-regulation mediates excessive collagen expression in localized scleroderma, Arch Dermatol Res, vol.305, pp.9-15, 2013.

D. Turpin, M. E. Truchetet, B. Faustin, J. F. Augusto, C. Contin-bordes et al., Role of extracellular vesicles in autoimmune diseases, Autoimmun Rev, vol.15, pp.174-83, 2016.

M. Mahler and R. Raijmakers, Novel aspects of autoantibodies to the PM/Scl complex: clinical, genetic and diagnostic insights, Autoimmun Rev, vol.6, pp.432-439, 2007.

V. Giancotti, Breast cancer markers. Cancer Lett, vol.243, pp.145-59, 2006.

N. Reich, B. Maurer, A. Akhmetshina, P. Venalis, C. Dees et al., The transcription factor Fra-2 regulates the production of extracellular matrix in systemic sclerosis, Arthritis Rheum, vol.62, pp.280-90, 2010.

Z. Yan, Z. Kui, and Z. Ping, Reviews and prospectives of signaling pathway analysis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Autoimmun Rev, vol.13, pp.1020-1025, 2014.

S. K. Parapuram, X. Shi-wen, C. Elliott, I. D. Welch, H. Jones et al., Loss of PTEN expression by dermal fibroblasts causes skin fibrosis, J Invest Dermatol, vol.131, pp.1996-2003, 2011.

S. Liu, S. K. Parapuram, and A. Leask, Fibrosis caused by loss of PTEN expression in mouse fibroblasts is crucially dependent on CCN2, Arthritis Rheum, vol.65, pp.2940-2944, 2013.

M. Chilosi, V. Poletti, A. Zamo, M. Lestani, L. Montagna et al., Aberrant Wnt/beta-catenin pathway activation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Am J Pathol, vol.162, pp.1495-502, 2003.

L. Galluzzi, S. Spranger, E. Fuchs, and A. Lopez-soto, WNT signaling in cancer immunosurveillance, Trends Cell Biol, vol.29, pp.44-65, 2018.

A. Akhmetshina, K. Palumbo, C. Dees, C. Bergmann, P. Venalis et al., Activation of canonical Wnt signalling is required for TGF-beta-mediated fibrosis, Nat Commun, vol.3, p.735, 2012.

J. Wei, F. Fang, A. P. Lam, J. L. Sargent, E. Hamburg et al., Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is hyperactivated in systemic sclerosis and induces Smad-dependent fibrotic responses in mesenchymal cells, Arthritis Rheum, vol.64, pp.2734-2779, 2012.

N. Qian and T. Ueno, Is dysfunction of caveolin-1 a link between systemic sclerosis and breast cancer, opening a window on both etiologies, Arch Med Res, vol.41, pp.297-301, 2010.

D. Galdo, F. Sotgia, F. De-almeida, C. J. Jasmin, J. F. Musick et al., Decreased expression of caveolin 1 in patients with systemic sclerosis: crucial role in the pathogenesis of tissue fibrosis, Arthritis Rheum, vol.58, pp.2854-65, 2008.

T. M. Williams, F. Medina, I. Badano, R. B. Hazan, J. Hutchinson et al., Caveolin-1 gene disruption promotes mammary tumorigenesis and dramatically enhances lung metastasis in vivo. Role of Cav-1 in cell invasiveness and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2/9) secretion, J Biol Chem, vol.279, pp.51630-51676, 2004.

P. Boffetta and D. Hashim, Exposure to silicon carbide and cancer risk: a systematic review, Int Arch Occup Environ Health, vol.90, pp.1-12, 2017.

I. Marie, J. F. Gehanno, M. Bubenheim, A. B. Duval-modeste, J. P. Dominique et al., Prospective study to evaluate the association between systemic sclerosis and occupational exposure and review of the literature, Autoimmun Rev, vol.13, pp.151-157, 2014.

I. Marie and J. F. Gehanno, Environmental risk factors of systemic sclerosis, Semin Immunopathol, vol.37, pp.463-73, 2015.

I. Marie, J. F. Menard, A. B. Duval-modeste, J. P. Dominique, S. Bravard et al., Association of occupational exposure with features of systemic sclerosis, J Am Acad Dermatol, vol.72, pp.456-64, 2015.

I. Marie, J. F. Gehanno, M. Bubenheim, A. B. Duval-modeste, J. P. Dominique et al., Systemic sclerosis and exposure to heavy metals: a case control study of 100 patients and 300 controls, Autoimmun Rev, vol.16, pp.223-253, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02109413

O. Kowal-bielecka, J. Fransen, J. Avouac, M. Becker, A. Kulak et al., Update of EULAR recommendations for the treatment of systemic sclerosis

, Ann Rheum Dis, vol.76, pp.1327-1366, 2017.

J. A. Baltus, J. W. Boersma, A. P. Hartman, and J. P. Vandenbroucke, The occurrence of malignancies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with cyclophosphamide: a controlled retrospective follow-up, Ann Rheum Dis, vol.42, pp.368-73, 1983.

D. P. Tashkin, M. D. Roth, P. J. Clements, D. E. Furst, D. Khanna et al., Mycophenolate mofetil versus oral cyclophosphamide in sclerodermarelated interstitial lung disease (SLS II): a randomised controlled, double-blind, parallel group trial, Lancet Respir Med, vol.4, issue.16, pp.30152-30159, 2016.

E. R. Volkmann, D. P. Tashkin, N. Li, M. D. Roth, D. Khanna et al., Mycophenolate Mofetil versus placebo for systemic sclerosis-related interstitial lung disease: an analysis of scleroderma lung studies I and II. Arthritis Rheumatol, vol.69, pp.1451-60, 2017.

A. Gulamhusein and J. E. Pope, Squamous cell carcinomas in 2 patients with diffuse scleroderma treated with mycophenolate mofetil, J Rheumatol, vol.36, pp.460-462, 2009.

K. Okada, Y. Endo, Y. Miyachi, Y. Koike, Y. Kuwatsuka et al., Glycosaminoglycan and versican deposits in taxane-induced sclerosis, Br J Dermatol, vol.173, pp.1054-1062, 2015.

B. Park, R. C. Vemulapalli, A. Gupta, M. E. Shreve, and D. A. Rees, Docetaxelinduced systemic sclerosis with internal organ involvement masquerading as congestive heart failure, Case Reports Immunol, p.4249157, 2017.

C. H. Hung, S. H. Chan, P. M. Chu, and K. L. Tsai, Docetaxel facilitates endothelial dysfunction through oxidative stress via modulation of protein kinase C Beta: the protective effects of sotrastaurin, Toxicol Sci, vol.145, pp.59-67, 2015.

A. Alhathlool, R. Hein, C. Andres, J. Ring, and B. Eberlein, Post-irradiation morphea: case report and review of the literature, J Dermatol Case Rep, vol.6, pp.73-80, 2012.

M. Abu-shakra and P. Lee, Exaggerated fibrosis in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) following radiation therapy, J Rheumatol, vol.20, pp.1601-1604, 1993.

D. Wechsler, B. Bletry, O. Piette, and J. C. , De novo systemic sclerosis after radiotherapy: a report of 3 cases, J Rheumatol, vol.26, pp.2265-2272, 1999.

C. Ferreli, G. Gasparini, A. Parodi, E. Cozzani, F. Rongioletti et al., Cutaneous manifestations of scleroderma and scleroderma-like disorders: a comprehensive review, Clin Rev Allergy Immunol, vol.53, pp.306-342, 2017.

K. P. Macdonald, G. R. Hill, and B. R. Blazar, Chronic graft-versus-host disease: biological insights from preclinical and clinical studies, Blood, vol.129, pp.13-21, 2017.

X. Yang, C. Liu, M. Fujino, J. Yang, X. K. Li et al., A modified graft-versus-host-induced model for systemic sclerosis, with pulmonary fibrosis in Rag2-deficient mice, FEBS Open Bio, vol.7, pp.1316-1343, 2017.

M. J. Park, S. J. Moon, E. J. Lee, K. A. Jung, E. K. Kim et al., IL-1-IL-17 signaling axis contributes to fibrosis and inflammation in two different murine models of systemic sclerosis, Front Immunol, vol.9, p.1611, 2018.

B. J. Tjarks, A. M. Kerkvliet, A. D. Jassim, and J. S. Bleeker, Scleroderma-like skin changes induced by checkpoint inhibitor therapy, J Cutan Pathol, vol.45, pp.615-623, 2018.

M. Nikpour, P. Hissaria, J. Byron, J. Sahhar, M. Micallef et al., Prevalence, correlates and clinical usefulness of antibodies to RNA polymerase III in systemic sclerosis: a cross-sectional analysis of data from an Australian cohort, Arthritis Res Ther, vol.13, 2011.

A. A. Shah, G. Xu, A. Rosen, L. K. Hummers, F. M. Wigley et al., Brief report: anti-RNPC-3 antibodies as a marker of cancer-associated scleroderma, Arthritis Rheumatol, vol.69, pp.1306-1318, 2017.

M. Boonstra, T. Huizinga, and J. K. De-vries-bouwstra, Auto-antibodies and cancer in systemic sclerosis, Autoimmun Rev, vol.16, pp.883-887, 2017.

F. Fernandez-madrid, P. J. Vandevord, X. Yang, R. L. Karvonen, P. M. Simpson et al., Antinuclear antibodies as potential markers of lung cancer, Clin Cancer Res, vol.5, pp.1393-400, 1999.

A. Vlagea, S. Falagan, G. Gutierrez-gutierrez, J. Moreno-rubio, M. Merino et al., Antinuclear antibodies and cancer: a literature review, Crit Rev Oncol Hematol, vol.127, pp.42-51, 2018.

D. F. Fiorentino, L. S. Chung, L. Christopher-stine, L. Zaba, S. Li et al., Most patients with cancer-associated dermatomyositis have antibodies to nuclear matrix protein NXP-2 or transcription intermediary factor 1gamma, Arthritis Rheum, vol.65, pp.2954-62, 2013.

M. A. Postow, R. Sidlow, and M. D. Hellmann, Immune-related adverse events associated with immune checkpoint blockade, N Engl J Med, vol.378, pp.158-68, 2018.

C. G. Joseph, E. Darrah, A. A. Shah, A. D. Skora, L. A. Casciola-rosen et al., Association of the autoimmune disease scleroderma with an immunologic response to cancer, Science, vol.343, pp.152-159, 2014.

R. H. Lin, M. J. Mamula, J. A. Hardin, and J. Cajr, Induction of autoreactive B cells allows priming of autoreactive T cells, J Exp Med, vol.173, pp.1433-1442, 1991.

R. D. Schreiber, L. J. Old, and M. J. Smyth, Cancer immunoediting: integrating immunity's roles in cancer suppression and promotion, Science, vol.331, 2011.

, Conflict of Interest Statement: The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest

©. Copyright, . Maria, . Partouche, . Goulabchand, . Rivière et al., This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, 2019.