, European Commission. Council Directive 98/83/EC of 3 November 1998 on the quality of water intended for human consumption, Document N ? 01998L0083-20151027, 1998.

T. Ekvall, M. Hirschnitz-garbers, F. Eboli, and A. Sniegocki, A systemic and systematic approach to the development of a policy mix for material resource efficiency

I. Gaballah and N. Kanari, Recycling policy in the European Union, JOM, vol.53, pp.24-27, 2001.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01510101

G. Choi, S. Oh, S. Lee, and J. Kim, Production of bio-based phenolic resin and activated carbon from bio-oil and biochar derived from fast pyrolysis of palm kernel shells, Bioresour. Technol, vol.178, pp.99-107, 2015.

L. Xia, X. Xu, W. Zhu, Q. Huang, and W. Chen, A comparative study on the biosorption of Cd 2+ onto Paecilomyces lilacinus XLA and Mucoromycote sp XLC, Int. J. Mol. Sci, vol.16, pp.15670-15687, 2015.

J. He and J. P. Chen, A comprehensive review on biosorption of heavy metals by algal biomass: Materials, performances, chemistry, and modeling simulation tools, Bioresour. Technol, vol.160, pp.67-78, 2014.

S. Bang, J. Choi, K. Cho, C. Chung, H. Kang et al., Simultaneous reduction of copper and toxicity in semiconductor wastewater using protonated alginate beads, Chem. Eng. J, vol.288, pp.525-531, 2016.

D. Humelnicu, M. Ignat, and F. Doroftei, Agricultural by-products as low-cost sorbents for the removal of heavy metals from dilute wastewaters, Environ. Monit. Assess, 2015.

Y. N. Mata, M. L. Blazquez, A. Ballester, F. Gonzalez, and J. A. Munoz, Sugar-beet pulp pectin gels as biosorbent for heavy metals: Preparation and determination of biosorption and desorption characteristics, Chem. Eng. J, vol.150, pp.289-301, 2009.

W. M. Ibrahim, Biosorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution by red macroalgae, J. Hazard. Mater, vol.192, pp.1827-1835, 2011.

R. Jalali, H. Ghafourian, Y. Asef, S. J. Davarpanah, and S. Sepehr, Removal and recovery of lead using nonliving biomass of marine algae, J. Hazard. Mater, vol.92, pp.253-262, 2002.

P. Pavasant, R. Apiratikul, V. Sungkhum, P. Suthiparinyanont, S. Wattanachira et al., Biosorption of Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , and Zn 2+ using dried marine green macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera, Bioresour. Technol, vol.97, pp.2321-2329, 2006.

E. Romera, F. Gonzalez, A. Ballester, M. L. Blazquez, and J. A. Munoz, Comparative study of biosorption of heavy metals using different types of algae, Bioresour. Technol, vol.98, pp.3344-3353, 2007.

P. X. Sheng, Y. P. Ting, J. P. Chen, and L. Hong, Sorption of lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel by marine algal biomass: Characterization of biosorptive capacity and investigation of mechanisms, J. Colloid Interface Sci, vol.275, pp.131-141, 2004.

A. Singh, D. Kumar, and J. P. Gaur, Copper(II) and lead(II) sorption from aqueous solution by non-living Spirogyra neglecta, Bioresour. Technol, vol.98, pp.3622-3629, 2007.

Y. N. Mata, M. L. Blazquez, A. Ballester, F. Gonzalez, and J. A. Munoz, Characterization of the biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus, J. Hazard. Mater, vol.158, pp.316-323, 2008.

V. J. Vilar, C. M. Botelho, and R. A. Boaventura, Copper removal by algae Gelidium, agar extraction algal waste and granulated algal waste: Kinetics and equilibrium, Bioresour. Technol, vol.99, pp.750-762, 2008.

T. A. Davis, B. Volesky, and R. H. Vieira, Sargassum seaweed as biosorbent for heavy metals, Water Res, vol.34, pp.4270-4278, 2000.

S. Kawai and K. Murata, Biofuel production based on carbohydrates from both brown and red macroalgae: Recent developments in key biotechnologies, Int. J. Mol. Sci, vol.17, p.145, 2016.

E. G. Deze, S. K. Papageorgiou, E. P. Favvas, and F. K. Katsaros, Porous alginate aerogel beads for effective and rapid heavy metal sorption from aqueous solutions: Effect of porosity in Cu 2+ and Cd 2+ ion sorption, Chem. Eng. J, vol.209, pp.537-546, 2012.

S. K. Papageorgiou, E. P. Kouvelos, and F. K. Katsaros, Calcium alginate beads from Laminaria digitata for the removal of Cu +2 and Cd +2 from dilute aqueous metal solutions, Desalination, vol.224, pp.293-306, 2008.

S. Schiewer and S. B. Patil, Pectin-rich fruit wastes as biosorbents for heavy metal removal: Equilibrium and kinetics, Bioresour. Technol, vol.99, pp.1896-1903, 2008.

D. Feng and C. Aldrich, Adsorption of heavy metals by biomaterials derived from the marine alga Ecklonia maxima, Hydrometallurgy, vol.73, pp.1-10, 2004.

A. R. Khataee, F. Vafaei, and M. Jannatkhah, Biosorption of three textile dyes from contaminated water by filamentous green algal Spirogyra sp.: Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies, Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad, vol.83, pp.33-40, 2013.

E. Guibal, Interactions of metal ions with chitosan-based sorbents: A review, Sep. Purif. Technol, vol.38, pp.43-74, 2004.

R. H. Huang, Y. M. Du, and J. H. Yang, Preparation and in vitro anticoagulant activities of alginate sulfate and its quaterized derivatives, Carbohydr. Polym, vol.52, pp.19-24, 2003.

T. Vincent, J. Taulemesse, A. Dauvergne, T. Chanut, F. Testa et al., Thallium(I) sorption using Prussian blue immobilized in alginate capsules, Carbohydr. Polym, vol.99, pp.517-526, 2014.

T. Vincent, C. Vincent, Y. Barre, Y. Guari, G. Le-saout et al., Immobilization of metal hexacyanoferrates in chitin beads for cesium sorption: Synthesis and characterization, J. Mater. Chem. A, vol.2, pp.10007-10021, 2014.

E. Guibal, T. Vincent, and C. Jouannin, Immobilization of extractants in biopolymer capsules for the synthesis of new resins: A focus on the encapsulation of tetraalkyl phosphonium ionic liquids, J. Mater. Chem, vol.19, pp.8515-8527, 2009.

S. K. Nitta and K. Numata, Biopolymer-based nanoparticles for drug/gene delivery and tissue engineering, Int. J. Mol. Sci, vol.14, pp.1629-1654, 2013.

A. F. Hassan, A. M. Abdel-mohsen, and M. M. Fouda, Comparative study of calcium alginate, activated carbon, and their composite beads on methylene blue adsorption, Carbohydr. Polym, vol.102, pp.192-198, 2014.

A. Idris, N. S. Ismail, N. Hassan, E. Misran, and A. Ngomsik, Synthesis of magnetic alginate beads based on maghemite nanoparticles for Pb(II) removal in aqueous solution, J. Ind. Eng. Chem, vol.18, pp.1582-1589, 2012.

X. Wang, K. Zhu, and H. Zhou, Immobilization of glucose oxidase in alginate-chitosan microcapsules, Int. J. Mol. Sci, vol.12, pp.3042-3054, 2011.

K. Jung, T. Jeong, H. Kang, and K. Ahn, Characteristics of biochar derived from marine macroalgae and fabrication of granular biochar by entrapment in calcium-alginate beads for phosphate removal from aqueous solution, Bioresour. Technol, vol.211, pp.108-116, 2016.

Y. Zhao, M. T. Carvajal, Y. Won, and M. T. Harris, Preparation of calcium alginate microgel beads in an electrodispersion reactor using an internal source of calcium carbonate nanoparticles, Langmuir, vol.23, pp.12489-12496, 2007.

H. B. Chen, Y. Z. Wang, M. Sanchez-soto, and D. A. Schiraldi, Low flammability, foam-like materials based on ammonium alginate and sodium montmorillonite clay, Polymer, vol.53, pp.5825-5831, 2012.

H. Song, W. Yu, M. Gao, X. Liu, and X. Ma, Microencapsulated probiotics using emulsification technique coupled with internal or external gelation process, Carbohydr. Polym, vol.96, pp.181-189, 2013.

A. J. Lorbeer, J. Lahnstein, V. Bulone, N. Trung, and W. Zhang, Multiple-response optimization of the acidic treatment of the brown alga Ecklonia radiata for the sequential extraction of fucoidan and alginate, Bioresour. Technol, vol.197, pp.302-309, 2015.

A. B. Castro-cesena, P. Del, and M. Sanchez-saavedra, Evaluation of sodium tripolyphosphate-alginate coating and re-calcifying on the entrapment of microalgae in alginate beads, J. Appl. Phycol, vol.27, pp.1205-1212, 2015.

K. C. Filippino, M. R. Mulholland, and C. B. Bott, Phycoremediation strategies for rapid tertiary nutrient removal in a waste stream, Algal Res, vol.11, pp.125-133, 2015.

A. Ruiz-marin, L. G. Mendoza-espinosa, and T. Stephenson, Growth and nutrient removal in free and immobilized green algae in batch and semi-continuous cultures treating real wastewater, Bioresour. Technol, vol.101, pp.58-64, 2010.

E. P. Kuncoro, J. Roussy, and E. Guibal, Mercury recovery by polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration: Comparison of chitosan and poly(ethylenimine) used as macroligand, Sep. Sci. Technol, vol.40, pp.659-684, 2005.

M. Ruiz, A. Sastre, and E. Guibal, Pd and Pt recovery using chitosan gel beads. II. Influence of chemical modifications on sorption properties, Sep. Sci. Technol, vol.37, pp.2385-2403, 2002.

C. Bertagnolli, A. Grishin, T. Vincent, and E. Guibal, Recovering heavy metal ions from complex solutions using polyethylenimine derivatives encapsulated in alginate matrix, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res, vol.55, pp.2461-2470, 2016.

C. Bertagnolli, A. Grishin, T. Vincent, and E. Guibal, Synthesis and application of a novel sorbent (tannic acid-grafted-polyethyleneimine encapsulated in alginate beads) for heavy metal removal, Sep. Sci. Technol, vol.50, pp.2897-2906, 2015.

R. Alfaro-cuevas-villanueva, A. R. Hidalgo-vazquez, C. D. Cortes-penagos, and R. Cortes-martinez, Thermodynamic, kinetic, and equilibrium parameters for the removal of lead and cadmium from aqueous solutions with calcium alginate beads, Sci. World J, vol.647512, 2014.

J. P. Chen, F. Tendeyong, and S. Yiacoumi, Equilibrium and kinetic studies of copper ion uptake by calcium alginate, Environ. Sci. Technol, vol.31, pp.1433-1439, 1997.

W. Plazinski, Sorption of lead, copper, and cadmium by calcium alginate: Metal binding stoichiometry and the pH effect, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res, vol.19, pp.3516-3524, 2012.

Y. X. Shang and X. F. Yu, Screening of algae material as a filter for heavy metals in drinking water, Algal Res, vol.12, pp.258-261, 2015.

F. Hammes, A. Seka, S. De-kniff, and W. Verstraete, A novel approach to calcium removal from calcium-rich industrial wastewater, Water Res, vol.37, pp.699-704, 2003.

A. Haug, Dissociation of alginic acid, Acta Chem. Scand, vol.15, pp.950-952, 1961.

F. Wang, X. Lu, and X. Li, Selective removals of heavy metals (Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Cd 2+ ) from wastewater by gelation with alginate for effective metal recovery, J. Hazard. Mater, vol.308, pp.75-83, 2016.

S. K. Papageorgiou, F. K. Katsaros, E. P. Kouvelos, J. W. Nolan, H. Le-deit et al., Heavy metal sorption by calcium alginate beads from Laminaria digitata, J. Hazard. Mater, vol.137, pp.1765-1772, 2006.

R. G. Pearson, Acids and bases, Science, vol.151, pp.172-177, 1966.

E. Guibal, S. Cambe, S. Bayle, J. Taulemesse, and T. Vincent, Silver/chitosan/cellulose fibers foam composites: From synthesis to antibacterial properties, J. Colloid Interface Sci, vol.393, pp.411-420, 2013.

J. Rincon, F. Gonzalez, A. Ballester, M. L. Blazquez, and J. A. Munoz, Biosorption of heavy metals by chemically-activated alga Fucus vesiculosus, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol, vol.80, pp.1403-1407, 2005.

S. Karthikeyan, R. Balasubramanian, and C. S. Iyer, Evaluation of the marine algae Ulva fasciata and Sargassum sp for the biosorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions, Bioresour. Technol, vol.98, pp.452-455, 2007.

S. D. Kirupha, S. Kalaivani, T. Vidhyadevi, P. Premkumar, P. Baskaralingam et al., Effective removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using a new chelating resin poly 2,5-(1,3,4-thiadiazole)-benzalimine : Kinetic and thermodynamic study, J. Water Reuse Desalination, vol.6, pp.310-324, 2016.

L. Fu, C. Shuang, F. Liu, A. Li, Y. Li et al., Rapid removal of copper with magnetic poly-acrylic weak acid resin: Quantitative role of bead radius on ion exchange, J. Hazard. Mater, vol.272, pp.102-111, 2014.

D. Kolodynska, W. Sofinska-chmiel, E. Mendyk, and Z. Hubicki, DOWEX M 4195 and LEWATIT ® MonoPlus TP 220 in heavy metal ions removal from acidic streams, Sep. Sci. Technol, vol.49, 2003.

M. A. Dubois, J. F. Dozol, C. Nicotra, J. Serose, and C. Massiani, Pyrolysis and incineration of cationic and anionic ion-exchange resins-identification of volatile degradation compounds, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, vol.31, pp.129-140, 1995.

Y. S. Ho and G. Mckay, Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes, Process Biochem, vol.34, pp.451-465, 1999.

J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion, 2nd, 1975.

M. Ruiz, A. Sastre, and E. Guibal, Pd and Pt recovery using chitosan gel beads. I. influence of the drying process on diffusion properties, Sep. Sci. Technol, vol.37, pp.2143-2166, 2002.

M. Robitzer, A. Tourrette, R. Horga, R. Valentin, M. Boissiere et al., Nitrogen sorption as a tool for the characterisation of polysaccharide aerogels, Carbohydr. Polym, vol.85, pp.44-53, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00573148

Y. Marcus, Ion Properties

M. Dekker and . Inc, , p.259, 1997.

D. J. Mchugh, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, pp.20-20, 2016.

C. Bertagnolli, A. P. Espindola, S. J. Kleinuebing, L. Tasic, and S. Carlos-da, Sargassum filipendula alginate from Brazil: Seasonal influence and characteristics, Carbohydr. Polym, vol.111, pp.619-623, 2014.

P. Agulhon, M. Robitzer, L. David, and F. Quignard, Structural regime identification in ionotropic alginate gels: Influence of the cation nature and alginate structure, Biomacromolecules, vol.13, pp.215-220, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00687472

A. Haug, The affinity of some divalent metals to different types of alginates, Acta Chem. Scand, vol.15, pp.1794-1795, 1961.

W. S. Ngah and S. Fatinathan, Adsorption characterization of Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions onto chitosan-tripolyphosphate beads: Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies, J. Environ. Manag, vol.91, pp.958-969, 2010.

R. Laus, T. G. Costa, B. Szpoganicz, and V. T. Favere, Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions using chitosan crosslinked with epichlorohydrin-triphosphate as the adsorbent, J. Hazard. Mater, vol.183, pp.233-241, 2010.

M. Wan, C. Kan, B. D. Rogel, and M. L. Dalida, Adsorption of copper (II) and lead (II) ions from aqueous solution on chitosan-coated sand, Carbohydr. Polym, vol.80, pp.891-899, 2010.

C. Chen, C. Yang, and A. Chen, Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions by cross-linked metal-imprinted chitosans with epichlorohydrin, Biosorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), vol.92, pp.796-802, 2011.

Q. Manzoor, R. Nadeem, M. Iqbal, R. Saeed, and T. M. Ansari, Organic acids pretreatment effect on Rosa bourbonia phyto-biomass for removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous media, Bioresour. Technol, vol.132, pp.446-452, 2013.

M. R. Lasheen, N. S. Ammar, and H. S. Ibrahim, Cu(II) and Pb(II) using chemically modified orange peel: Equilibrium and kinetic studies, Solid State Sci, vol.14, pp.202-210, 2012.

M. Hossain, H. Ngo, W. Guo, L. Nghiem, F. Hai et al., Competitive adsorption of metals on cabbage waste from multi-metal solutions, Bioresour. Technol, vol.160, pp.79-88, 2014.

F. Allouche, N. Mameri, and E. Guibal, Pb(II) biosorption on Posidonia oceanica biomass, Chem. Eng. J, vol.168, pp.1174-1184, 2011.

Y. Lee and S. Chang, The biosorption of heavy metals from aqueous solution by Spirogyra and Cladophora filamentous macroalgae, Bioresour. Technol, vol.102, pp.5297-5304, 2011.

R. Praveen and K. Vijayaraghavan, Cd(II) and Pb(II) biosorption by red marine alga Kappaphycus alvarezii, Desalination Water Treat, vol.55, pp.1816-1824, 2015.

S. Yalç?n, S. Sezer, and R. Apak, Characterization and lead(II), cadmium(II), nickel(II) biosorption of dried marine brown macro algae Cystoseira barbata, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res, vol.19, pp.3118-3125, 2012.

T. A. Khan, A. A. Mukhlif, E. A. Khan, and D. K. Sharma, Isotherm and kinetics modeling of Pb(II) and Cd(II) adsorptive uptake from aqueous solution by chemically modified green algal biomass, Model. Earth Syst. Environ, vol.2, pp.1-13, 2016.

M. M. Areco, S. Hanela, and J. Duran, Cd(II) and Pb(II) by dead biomasses of green alga Ulva lactuca and the development of a sustainable matrix for adsorption implementation, dos Santos Afonso, M. Biosorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), vol.213, pp.123-132, 2012.

Y. Mata, M. Blázquez, A. Ballester, F. González, and J. Munoz, Biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with calcium alginate xerogels and immobilized Fucus vesiculosus, J. Hazard. Mater, vol.163, pp.555-562, 2009.