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Monoculture and co-culture tests of the toxicity of four typical herbicides on growth, photosynthesis and oxidative stress responses of the marine diatoms Pseudo-nitzschia mannii and Chaetoceros decipiens

Abstract : The toxicity of four herbicides in mixture (alachlor, diuron, des-isopropyl-atrazine and simazine) on the growth and the photosynthesis parameters of two marine diatoms Pseudo-niszchia mannii and Chaetoceros decipiens have been investigated for 9 days in monoculture and co-culture tests. The catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) were also monitored to assess the oxidative stress response. In single-species assays, while both species displayed no affected instantaneous growth rate by herbicides, their physiological responses were different. Chl a content of P. mannii significantly decreased upon herbicide exposure, due probably to pigment destruction or inhibition of their synthesis. This decrease was associated with a reduction in the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (ABS0/RC, TR0/RC, ET0/RC and DI0/RC). In contrast, C. decipiens maintained an effective photosynthetic performance under herbicide exposure, as Chl a per cell content and the specific energy fluxes per reaction center remained unchanged relative to control values. GPX activity was significantly higher in contaminated P. mannii and C. decipiens monocultures than in controls at early herbicide exposure (1 day), whereas a significant induction of CAT activity occurred later (from day 3 for C. decipiens and at day 9 for P. mannii) in response to herbicides. In control co-culture, P. mannii was eliminated by C. decipiens. As observed in the monoculture, the herbicides did not affect the photosynthetic performance of C. decipiens in co-culture, but significantly reduced its instantaneous growth rate. The oxidative stress response in co-culture has similar trends to that of C. decipiens in monoculture, but the interspecies competition likely resulted in higher CAT activity under herbicide exposure. Results of this study suggest that herbicide toxicity for marine diatoms might be amplified by interspecies interactions in natural communities, which might lead to different physiological and growth responses.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03619663
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Submitted on : Wednesday, March 30, 2022 - 11:08:08 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, May 18, 2022 - 5:17:18 PM

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Inès Sahraoui, Sondes Melliti Ben Garali, Zoubaida Chakroun, Catherine Gonzalez, Asma Sakka Hlaili, et al.. Monoculture and co-culture tests of the toxicity of four typical herbicides on growth, photosynthesis and oxidative stress responses of the marine diatoms Pseudo-nitzschia mannii and Chaetoceros decipiens. Ecotoxicology, Springer Verlag, 2022, ⟨10.1007/s10646-022-02535-5⟩. ⟨hal-03619663⟩

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