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Rôles des contraintes génomiques et des traits d'histoire de vie dans la spéciation : une approche de génomique comparative

Abstract : Speciation is the evolutionary process through which a species splits into two lineages that diverge and accumulate reproductive barriers, until complete reproductive isolation is achieved. During this process, the diverging lineages can still exchange genes by hybridisation, but gene flow is progressively restricted by the accumulation of barriers. This results in semi-permeable genomes, whereby some loci exchange freely between lineages and remain undifferentiated while others do not introgress, thus contributing to the establishment of divergent genomic regions, called genomic islands of speciation. The study of the establishment, accumulation, erosion and maintenance of these barriers and their effects on the semipermeability of the genomes of lineages undergoing speciation helps to understand how new species are formed. The advent of high-throughput sequencing techniques has made it possible to characterise the genomic landscape of divergence in multiple lineages undergoing speciation across the tree of life. These studies have shown the influence of the demographic history and genomic architecture as major determinants of the genomic landscape of divergence. However, other factors could intervene and explain the diversity of evolutionary trajectories that may or may not lead to speciation. The main objective of this thesis is to assess the impact of species' life history traits on speciation. We have chosen to study 20 marine fish species subdivided into two lineages (Atlantic and Mediterranean), and presenting a wide diversity of degrees of divergence and life history traits. These traits are thought to impact on the intensity of genetic drift, dispersal abilities and generation time of the species. In the first chapter, we studied the determinants of genetic diversity, the substrate on which divergence is built during the initial separation of lineages. We observed that adult longevity of marine fishes is negatively correlated w ith genetic diversity, and we demonstrated that this relationship could be explained by a greater variance in reproductive success in long-lived species due to reproductive strategies specific to marine fishes (high juvenile mortality, low adult mortality and increased fecundity with age). Then, in a second chapter, we discovered a great diversity of evolutionary histories between species, characterised by a strong gradient of genetic divergence between Atlantic and Mediterranean lineages. This gradient partly reflects the level of semi-permeability of the genomes. Species with low differentiation show low reproductive isolation, whereas the most highly differentiated species show almost complete reproductive isolation. Species' life history traits partly explain this diversity in isolation levels via different mechanisms. Larval duration negatively influences genetic differentiation by modulating dispersal capacities, the effect of body size indicates a negative effect of long-term abundance on divergence, while longevity seems to impact the number of generations elapsed since ancestral separation. In conclusion, the 20 species studied show a surprising variability of evolutionary histories considering the similarities of their biogeographic history and genomic architecture. The relationships between life-history traits and the evolutionary history of the species proved to be complex, but we were nevertheless able to shed light on some of them by decomposing the involvement of traits in the different stages of speciation. The application of the comparative genomics approach developed in this thesis to other suture zones will further extend our knowledge of the determinants of the tempo and mode of speciation.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, May 11, 2022 - 11:50:13 AM
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Pierre Barry. Rôles des contraintes génomiques et des traits d'histoire de vie dans la spéciation : une approche de génomique comparative. Sciences agricoles. Université Montpellier, 2022. Français. ⟨NNT : 2022MONTG007⟩. ⟨tel-03664757⟩

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