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Pré-Publication, Document De Travail (Working Paper) Année : 2024

Male Sterilization and Persistence of Violence: Evidence from Emergency in India

Résumé

Can forced sterilization programs targeting men lead to male-perpetrated violence? This paper investigates the impact of a government-mandated male sterilization program introduced in India on the rise of violence. Launched in April 1976, the program predominantly targeted men and saw heterogeneous implementation across India over 10 months. Using various household surveys and newly digitized historical data sources, we study whether the program triggered unintended effects on violence, measured by crime rates. Using a difference-indifferences strategy by exploiting geographical variation in coercion intensity, we find that an increase in exposure to the program led to an increase in violent crime rates of 7% for the average district, which persisted over time. Violent crimes against women primarily drive the increase in crime rates, as rapes are increasing by 22% for the average district. We find that the program was ineffective in reducing fertility, so we hypothesize that a forced sterilization program targeting men may increase violence against women through two main channels: the program inducing trauma and impacting perceptions of masculinity. In line with those channels, we see that districts with high coercion intensity correlate with more harmful gender norms: higher levels and acceptance of Intimate Partner Violence, lower bargaining power of women and lower contraception adoption.
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Dates et versions

halshs-04454278 , version 1 (13-02-2024)

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  • HAL Id : halshs-04454278 , version 1

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Aditi Singh, Sarah Vincent. Male Sterilization and Persistence of Violence: Evidence from Emergency in India. 2024. ⟨halshs-04454278⟩
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