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Adaptations métaboliques en réponse à l'exercice excentrique dynamique : application au réentrainement.

Abstract : Chronic pathologies are the world leading cause of death. In addition to reducing functional capacities and degrading patients' life quality, they constitute a major public health expenditure. Part of the management involves appropriate physical activity and exercise training. This aims to improve subjects' capacities, in particular endurance and muscle strength, in order to increase their autonomy and reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality. Classically, endurance cycling or treadmill running exercises are performed at a sub-maximal metabolic intensity (~60%) and in a classic concentric muscle contraction mode. These training conditions, and the associated adaptations, are however limited by the patients' ability to achieve or maintain such stresses over time. It is therefore necessary to develop alternative strategies that take into account cardiac, respiratory and/or muscular limitations linked to the pathology while allowing optimal adaptive responses. One approach is that of dynamic eccentric training through resistance pedaling or downhill running exercises. Compared to concentric mode, eccentric has the ability to generate significant mechanical loads for less cardio-respiratory stress. For several years, the feasibility of this type of training has been observed, including in patients with chronic diseases. Its effectiveness in increasing muscle mass and strength has also been widely demonstrated. Recent work also shows its interest in overweight and obesity management through its effects on body composition and fat reduction. However, aerobic adaptations following eccentric training remain incomplete with regard to initial expectations of improved oxygen uptake and mitochondrial function, for which exercise metabolic intensity appears to be the determining factor. Thus, mixed approaches can be considered in order to develop the best combination that will optimize the overall physical training outcomes by enhancing both muscle strength and endurance.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, March 23, 2021 - 10:20:08 AM
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Julianne Touron. Adaptations métaboliques en réponse à l'exercice excentrique dynamique : application au réentrainement.. Santé. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020CLFAC051⟩. ⟨tel-03177393⟩

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